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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Geisl 67VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 67’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 61-2.

Einarr SkúlasonGeisli
666768

Talðak ‘I have told’

3. tala (verb): speak, talk

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fátt ‘little’

3. fár (adj.; °compar. fǽrri/fárri(Mág² 11ˆ), superl. fǽstr): few

notes

[1] fátt ór fjǫlða ‘little from the multitude’: This is presumably intended as a modesty topos, given the number of miracles Einarr has just included in his poem. Bb’s reading is preferred by both Skj B and Skald.

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ór ‘from’

3. ór (prep.): out of

[1] ór: so Bb, í Flat

notes

[1] fátt ór fjǫlða ‘little from the multitude’: This is presumably intended as a modesty topos, given the number of miracles Einarr has just included in his poem. Bb’s reading is preferred by both Skj B and Skald.

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fjǫlða ‘the multitude’

fjǫlði (noun m.): multitude

notes

[1] fátt ór fjǫlða ‘little from the multitude’: This is presumably intended as a modesty topos, given the number of miracles Einarr has just included in his poem. Bb’s reading is preferred by both Skj B and Skald.

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frið ‘of peace’

friðr (noun m.): peace < friðgegn (adj.)

notes

[2] friðgegns (m. gen. sg.) ‘peace-loving’: The epithet has decidedly Christian connotations: Óláfr now dwells in peace in the heavenly Jerusalem.

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gegns ‘loving’

1. gegn (adj.; °compar. -ri, superl. -astr/-str): reliable < friðgegn (adj.)

notes

[2] friðgegns (m. gen. sg.) ‘peace-loving’: The epithet has decidedly Christian connotations: Óláfr now dwells in peace in the heavenly Jerusalem.

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koma ‘come’

koma (verb; kem, kom/kvam, kominn): come

notes

[3] koma frá ‘come from’: Here Bb’s reading is adopted, as Flat’s koma af means ‘descend from’ (in a genealogical sense) and is inappropriate here.

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frá ‘from’

frá (prep.): from

[3] frá: so Bb, af Flat

notes

[3] koma frá ‘come from’: Here Bb’s reading is adopted, as Flat’s koma af means ‘descend from’ (in a genealogical sense) and is inappropriate here.

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órum ‘our [my]’

órr (noun m.; °; -ar): [our [my]]

kennings

órum stóli bragar.
‘our [my] seat of poetry. May ’
   = MOUTH

our [my] seat of poetry. May → MOUTH
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Óláfs ‘Óláfr’

Óláfr (noun m.): Óláfr

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bragar ‘of poetry’

bragr (noun m.; °-ar): poem, poetry

kennings

órum stóli bragar.
‘our [my] seat of poetry. May ’
   = MOUTH

our [my] seat of poetry. May → MOUTH

notes

[4] stóli bragar ‘seat of poetry [MOUTH]’: The kenning is multivalent. LP identifies it as a reference to the poet’s breast or soul, but it could also refer to his voice or mouth, or even (secondarily) to the seat from which he proclaimed his poem to the audience.

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stóli ‘seat’

1. stóll (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): seat, throne

kennings

órum stóli bragar.
‘our [my] seat of poetry. May ’
   = MOUTH

our [my] seat of poetry. May → MOUTH

notes

[4] stóli bragar ‘seat of poetry [MOUTH]’: The kenning is multivalent. LP identifies it as a reference to the poet’s breast or soul, but it could also refer to his voice or mouth, or even (secondarily) to the seat from which he proclaimed his poem to the audience.

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taki ‘receive’

2. taka (verb): take

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Bóls ‘of the dwelling-place’

ból (noun n.; °-s; -): dwelling

kennings

siklings bóls heiðbjartrar sólar,
‘of the lord of the dwelling-place of the cloud-free sun, ’
   = Óláfr

the dwelling-place of the cloud-free sun, → SKY/HEAVEN
the lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → Óláfr
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Bóls ‘of the dwelling-place’

ból (noun n.; °-s; -): dwelling

kennings

siklings bóls heiðbjartrar sólar,
‘of the lord of the dwelling-place of the cloud-free sun, ’
   = Óláfr

the dwelling-place of the cloud-free sun, → SKY/HEAVEN
the lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → Óláfr
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hverr ‘each’

2. hverr (pron.): who, whom, each, every

[5] hverrs (‘huerr er’): hverr Bb

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s ‘who’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[5] hverrs (‘huerr er’): hverr Bb

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sólar ‘sun’

sól (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): sun

kennings

siklings bóls heiðbjartrar sólar,
‘of the lord of the dwelling-place of the cloud-free sun, ’
   = Óláfr

the dwelling-place of the cloud-free sun, → SKY/HEAVEN
the lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → Óláfr
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sólar ‘sun’

sól (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): sun

kennings

siklings bóls heiðbjartrar sólar,
‘of the lord of the dwelling-place of the cloud-free sun, ’
   = Óláfr

the dwelling-place of the cloud-free sun, → SKY/HEAVEN
the lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → Óláfr
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hefir ‘has’

hafa (verb): have

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siklings ‘of the lord’

siklingr (noun m.; °; -ar): king, ruler

kennings

siklings bóls heiðbjartrar sólar,
‘of the lord of the dwelling-place of the cloud-free sun, ’
   = Óláfr

the dwelling-place of the cloud-free sun, → SKY/HEAVEN
the lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → Óláfr
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hefir ‘’

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’s ‘whom’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[6] þess’s guð (‘þess er guð’): so Bb, hefir Flat

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guð ‘God’

1. guð (noun m.; °***guðrs, guðis, gus): (Christian) God

[6] þess’s guð (‘þess er guð’): so Bb, hefir Flat

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miklar ‘makes great’

mikla (verb): intensify, make great

[6] miklar: so Bb, mikla Flat

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hilmis ‘Lord’

hilmir (noun m.): prince, protector

[7] hilmis: hilmir Bb

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ins ‘of the’

2. inn (art.): the

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heið ‘of the cloud’

2. heið (noun n.; °; -): clear sky < heiðbjartr (adj.)

[8] heiðbjartrar: so Bb, heiðbjartr er Flat

kennings

siklings bóls heiðbjartrar sólar,
‘of the lord of the dwelling-place of the cloud-free sun, ’
   = Óláfr

the dwelling-place of the cloud-free sun, → SKY/HEAVEN
the lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → Óláfr
Close

heið ‘of the cloud’

2. heið (noun n.; °; -): clear sky < heiðbjartr (adj.)

[8] heiðbjartrar: so Bb, heiðbjartr er Flat

kennings

siklings bóls heiðbjartrar sólar,
‘of the lord of the dwelling-place of the cloud-free sun, ’
   = Óláfr

the dwelling-place of the cloud-free sun, → SKY/HEAVEN
the lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → Óláfr
Close

bjartrar ‘free’

bjartr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): bright < heiðbjartr (adj.)

[8] heiðbjartrar: so Bb, heiðbjartr er Flat

kennings

siklings bóls heiðbjartrar sólar,
‘of the lord of the dwelling-place of the cloud-free sun, ’
   = Óláfr

the dwelling-place of the cloud-free sun, → SKY/HEAVEN
the lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → Óláfr
Close

bjartrar ‘free’

bjartr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): bright < heiðbjartr (adj.)

[8] heiðbjartrar: so Bb, heiðbjartr er Flat

kennings

siklings bóls heiðbjartrar sólar,
‘of the lord of the dwelling-place of the cloud-free sun, ’
   = Óláfr

the dwelling-place of the cloud-free sun, → SKY/HEAVEN
the lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → Óláfr
Close

reiðir ‘spreads’

2. reiða (verb): carry

[8] reiðir: greiðir Bb

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[5-8]: There are considerable differences between Flat and Bb in the second helmingr. Neither version is unproblematic, so readings have been taken from both. The sense of ll. 5-8 is continued by the svát-cl. introducing st. 68. The interpretation offered here differs slightly from both Skj B and Kock (Skald and NN §951). Kock reads ll. 6-7 as an intercalary, adopting Flat’s l. 6, though with emendation of siklings to siklingr, and another emendation in l. 8 (heiðbjarts). Skj B takes lof hilmis ‘praise of the prince’ (Óláfr) together and constructs the kenning (st ens hæsta) siklings heiðbjartrar sólar bóls ‘(the highest love) of the king of the dwelling-place of the cloud-free sun [SKY/HEAVEN > = God]’. The cl. þess’s guð miklar ‘whom God makes great’ then depends on gen. sg. hilmis (l. 7), referring to Óláfr, which avoids the difficulty in the interpretation adopted here that the gen. phrase is the kenning siklings bóls heiðbjartrar sólar ‘lord of the dwelling-place of the cloud-free sun’, which must be assumed to refer, unusually, to the saint rather than to God.

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