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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Geisl 6VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 6’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 11-12.

Einarr SkúlasonGeisli
567

dýrðar ‘of glory’

dýrð (noun f.; °-ar/-a(NoDipl(1279) 44²ˆ); -ir): glory

kennings

Dáðvandr dróttinn dýrðar
‘The carefully-acting lord of glory ’
   = God

The carefully-acting lord of glory → God

notes

[1] dýrðar ‘of glory’: Dýrðar can be construed with either dróttinn ‘Lord’ (l. 1) or váttr ‘witness’ (l. 4). Dróttinn dýrðar ‘Lord of glory’ would be analogous to the Scriptural ‘Lord of glory’ (1 Cor. II.8) and ‘king of glory’ (Ps. XXIII.7-10). The syntax of the helmingr supports this interpretation, and is adopted here, but dýrðar váttr as a kenning for martyr is attested later in Geisl (62/3) and in Anon Pl 26/3.

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dróttinn ‘lord’

dróttinn (noun m.; °dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar): lord, master

kennings

Dáðvandr dróttinn dýrðar
‘The carefully-acting lord of glory ’
   = God

The carefully-acting lord of glory → God
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dáð ‘The carefully’

dáð (noun f.; °; -ir): feat, deed < dáðvandr (adj.)

kennings

Dáðvandr dróttinn dýrðar
‘The carefully-acting lord of glory ’
   = God

The carefully-acting lord of glory → God
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vandr ‘acting’

vandr (adj.): difficult < dáðvandr (adj.)

kennings

Dáðvandr dróttinn dýrðar
‘The carefully-acting lord of glory ’
   = God

The carefully-acting lord of glory → God
Close

gjafar ‘the gifts’

gjǫf (noun f.): gift

[2] gjafar: so Bb, gjafir Flat

notes

[2, 4] gjafar máttigs anda ‘the gifts of the mighty spirit’: A theological commonplace (dona Spiritus Sancti). Throughout the Middle Ages and beyond the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit figure prominently in pious exercises and theological systems.

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anda ‘spirit’

andi (noun m.; °-a; -ar): spirit, soul

notes

[2, 4] gjafar máttigs anda ‘the gifts of the mighty spirit’: A theological commonplace (dona Spiritus Sancti). Throughout the Middle Ages and beyond the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit figure prominently in pious exercises and theological systems.

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môl ‘sayings’

1. mál (noun n.; °-s; -): speech, matter

kennings

þau môl vátta.
‘those sayings of witnesses. ’
   = SCRIPTURES

those sayings of witnesses. → SCRIPTURES

notes

[3-4]: Both Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) and Kock (Skald) prefer Bb’s equally plausible readings sanna and váttar in ll. 3-4, giving the sense framir váttar sanna þau ml ‘excellent witnesses affirm those sayings’.

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sanna ‘’

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kynnask ‘study’

kynna (verb): make known, reveal

[3] kynnask: sanna Bb

notes

[3-4]: Both Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) and Kock (Skald) prefer Bb’s equally plausible readings sanna and váttar in ll. 3-4, giving the sense framir váttar sanna þau ml ‘excellent witnesses affirm those sayings’.

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þau ‘those’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

kennings

þau môl vátta.
‘those sayings of witnesses. ’
   = SCRIPTURES

those sayings of witnesses. → SCRIPTURES

notes

[3-4]: Both Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) and Kock (Skald) prefer Bb’s equally plausible readings sanna and váttar in ll. 3-4, giving the sense framir váttar sanna þau ml ‘excellent witnesses affirm those sayings’.

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mǫnnum ‘to men’

maðr (noun m.): man, person

notes

[3-4]: Both Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) and Kock (Skald) prefer Bb’s equally plausible readings sanna and váttar in ll. 3-4, giving the sense framir váttar sanna þau ml ‘excellent witnesses affirm those sayings’.

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máttigs ‘of the mighty’

máttigr (adj.; °compar. -ari/-ri, superl. -astr): mighty

notes

[2, 4] gjafar máttigs anda ‘the gifts of the mighty spirit’: A theological commonplace (dona Spiritus Sancti). Throughout the Middle Ages and beyond the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit figure prominently in pious exercises and theological systems. — [3-4]: Both Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) and Kock (Skald) prefer Bb’s equally plausible readings sanna and váttar in ll. 3-4, giving the sense framir váttar sanna þau ml ‘excellent witnesses affirm those sayings’.

Close

máttigs ‘of the mighty’

máttigr (adj.; °compar. -ari/-ri, superl. -astr): mighty

notes

[2, 4] gjafar máttigs anda ‘the gifts of the mighty spirit’: A theological commonplace (dona Spiritus Sancti). Throughout the Middle Ages and beyond the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit figure prominently in pious exercises and theological systems. — [3-4]: Both Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) and Kock (Skald) prefer Bb’s equally plausible readings sanna and váttar in ll. 3-4, giving the sense framir váttar sanna þau ml ‘excellent witnesses affirm those sayings’.

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framir ‘excellent men’

framr (adj.; °compar. framari/fremri, superl. framastr/fremstr): outstanding, foremost

notes

[3-4]: Both Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) and Kock (Skald) prefer Bb’s equally plausible readings sanna and váttar in ll. 3-4, giving the sense framir váttar sanna þau ml ‘excellent witnesses affirm those sayings’.

Close

vátta ‘of witnesses’

váttr (noun m.; °váttar; dat. vátt/vǽtti; váttar/vǽttir, acc. vátta/váttu/vǽtta): witness

[4] vátta: ‘vottar’ Bb

kennings

þau môl vátta.
‘those sayings of witnesses. ’
   = SCRIPTURES

those sayings of witnesses. → SCRIPTURES

notes

[3-4]: Both Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) and Kock (Skald) prefer Bb’s equally plausible readings sanna and váttar in ll. 3-4, giving the sense framir váttar sanna þau ml ‘excellent witnesses affirm those sayings’. — [3] vátta ‘of witnesses’: Vátta (nom. pl. váttar) refers to the Apostles, who witnessed the glory of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost, and who later earned the crown of martyrdom.

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vátta ‘of witnesses’

váttr (noun m.; °váttar; dat. vátt/vǽtti; váttar/vǽttir, acc. vátta/váttu/vǽtta): witness

[4] vátta: ‘vottar’ Bb

kennings

þau môl vátta.
‘those sayings of witnesses. ’
   = SCRIPTURES

those sayings of witnesses. → SCRIPTURES

notes

[3-4]: Both Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) and Kock (Skald) prefer Bb’s equally plausible readings sanna and váttar in ll. 3-4, giving the sense framir váttar sanna þau ml ‘excellent witnesses affirm those sayings’. — [3] vátta ‘of witnesses’: Vátta (nom. pl. váttar) refers to the Apostles, who witnessed the glory of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost, and who later earned the crown of martyrdom.

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þaðan ‘’

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Þá ‘Then’

2. þá (adv.): then

[5] Þá: þaðan Bb

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alþýð ‘universal’

alþýðr (adj.): [universal]

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skjǫldungr ‘prince’

skjǫldungr (noun m.): king

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hauldum ‘men’

hǫlðr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): man

notes

[7] hauldum ‘noble farmers, men’: Both mss give the Norw. form of the word hǫlðr, which is necessary to maintain skothending. According to Noreen the change o/au before l + consonant did not occur in Iceland until around 1300 (cf. ANG §105 and Anm.). The syntax of the helmingr is good, making the possibility of scribal tampering unlikely. Einarr may have chosen the form to avoid aðalhending in an odd-numbered l. In 4/6 he uses the forms hǫlða (ms. ‘holda’) and meginfjǫlði (ms. ‘meginfioldi’) ‘multitude’ to form an aðalhending.

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vistar ‘hospitality’

vist (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): abode, lodging, provisions < himinvist (noun f.)

[8] himinvistar: himins vistar Bb

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