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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Geisl 54VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 54’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 51.

Einarr SkúlasonGeisli
535455

ítran ‘glorious’

ítr (adj.): glorious

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af ‘with’

af (prep.): from

notes

[2] af trausti ‘with confidence’: cf. HómNo, 112: á hann hafa callat með trauſti ‘they have called on him with confidence’.

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trausti ‘confidence’

trausti (noun m.; °-a): [confidence]

notes

[2] af trausti ‘with confidence’: cf. HómNo, 112: á hann hafa callat með trauſti ‘they have called on him with confidence’.

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stríð ‘the distress’

2. stríð (noun n.; °-s; -): affliction

notes

[3] stríð eyðis ógnar svall ‘the distress of the destroyer of terror increased’: Flat’s reading is followed here, except for the verb; Skj B and Skald follow Bb, understanding an intercalary stríð ógn svall ‘tough battle raged’, while construing þás óðusk with í stála gný ‘when they were afraid in the noise of steel weapons [BATTLE]’.

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stall ‘///’

stalla (verb)

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svall ‘increased’

1. svella (verb): swell

[3] svall: so Bb, stall Flat

notes

[3] stríð eyðis ógnar svall ‘the distress of the destroyer of terror increased’: Flat’s reading is followed here, except for the verb; Skj B and Skald follow Bb, understanding an intercalary stríð ógn svall ‘tough battle raged’, while construing þás óðusk with í stála gný ‘when they were afraid in the noise of steel weapons [BATTLE]’.

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ógnar ‘of terror’

ógn (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): terror, battle

[3] ógnar: ógn þá er Bb

kennings

eyðis ógnar
‘of the destroyer of terror ’
   = RULER = Byzantine emperor

the destroyer of terror → RULER = Byzantine emperor

notes

[3] stríð eyðis ógnar svall ‘the distress of the destroyer of terror increased’: Flat’s reading is followed here, except for the verb; Skj B and Skald follow Bb, understanding an intercalary stríð ógn svall ‘tough battle raged’, while construing þás óðusk with í stála gný ‘when they were afraid in the noise of steel weapons [BATTLE]’.

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eyðis ‘of the destroyer’

eyðir (noun m.): destroyer

[3] eyðis: óðusk Bb

kennings

eyðis ógnar
‘of the destroyer of terror ’
   = RULER = Byzantine emperor

the destroyer of terror → RULER = Byzantine emperor

notes

[3] stríð eyðis ógnar svall ‘the distress of the destroyer of terror increased’: Flat’s reading is followed here, except for the verb; Skj B and Skald follow Bb, understanding an intercalary stríð ógn svall ‘tough battle raged’, while construing þás óðusk with í stála gný ‘when they were afraid in the noise of steel weapons [BATTLE]’.

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Ôláf ‘Óláfr’

Óláfr (noun m.): Óláfr

[4] Ôláf: so Bb, láfr Flat

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gný ‘the noise’

gnýr (noun m.): din, tumult

kennings

gný stála —
‘the noise of steel weapons — ’
   = BATTLE

the noise of steel weapons — → BATTLE
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stála ‘of steel weapons’

1. stál (noun n.; °-s; -): steel, weapon, prow

kennings

gný stála —
‘the noise of steel weapons — ’
   = BATTLE

the noise of steel weapons — → BATTLE
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þars ‘where’

þar (adv.): there

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einn ‘one’

2. einn (pron.; °decl. cf. einn num.): one, alone

[5] einn: so Bb, einum Flat

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ǫrva ‘of arrows’

ǫr (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; ǫrvar/ǫrar): arrow

kennings

flug ǫrva;
‘the flight of arrows; ’
   = BATTLE

the flight of arrows; → BATTLE
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und ‘with the wound’

1. und (noun f.; °; -ir): wound < undbára (noun f.)

[6] undbôru: so Bb, ‘undḅꜳr ꜳ’ Flat

kennings

undbôru,
‘with the wound-wave, ’
   = BLOOD

with the wound-wave, → BLOOD
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bôru ‘wave’

1. bára (noun f.; °-u; -ur): wave < undbára (noun f.)

[6] undbôru: so Bb, ‘undḅꜳr ꜳ’ Flat

kennings

undbôru,
‘with the wound-wave, ’
   = BLOOD

with the wound-wave, → BLOOD
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flug ‘the flight’

2. flug (noun n.): flight, ?precipice

kennings

flug ǫrva;
‘the flight of arrows; ’
   = BATTLE

the flight of arrows; → BATTLE
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klofnaði ‘were cloven’

klofna (verb): cleave

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roðin ‘reddened’

rjóða (verb): to redden

[7] roðin: so Bb, rofin Flat

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klofnuðu ‘were cloven’

klofna (verb): cleave

[7] klofnuðu: so Bb, klofnaði Flat

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Reifnis ‘Reifnir’s’

Reifnir (noun m.): Reifnir

kennings

Reifnis rǫnn,
‘Reifnir’s houses, ’
   = SHIELDS

Reifnir’s houses, → SHIELDS
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rǫnn ‘houses’

rann (noun n.): house, hall

kennings

Reifnis rǫnn,
‘Reifnir’s houses, ’
   = SHIELDS

Reifnir’s houses, → SHIELDS
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sex ‘six’

sex (num. cardinal): six

notes

[8] sex tigir ‘six tens’: The ON prose versions also mention the sixty-to-one advantage of the Petchenegs over the Varangians (Louis-Jensen 1970, 35; ÓHLeg 1982, 214; Hkr, ÍF 28, 372; ÓH 1941, 636).

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tigir ‘ty’

tigir (num. cardinal): [ty]

notes

[8] sex tigir ‘six tens’: The ON prose versions also mention the sixty-to-one advantage of the Petchenegs over the Varangians (Louis-Jensen 1970, 35; ÓHLeg 1982, 214; Hkr, ÍF 28, 372; ÓH 1941, 636).

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[5-8]: Bb’s text is better than Flat’s and has been followed here.

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