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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Geisl 46VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 46’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 44-5.

Einarr SkúlasonGeisli
454647

en ‘but’

(not checked:)
2. en (conj.): but, and

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því ‘therefore’

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því (adv.): therefore, because

[1] því: en Bb

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mærð ‘the praise’

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mærð (noun f.): praise

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skal ‘I shall’

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skulu (verb): shall, should, must

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stœra ‘’

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stœra (verb): increase, strengthen

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skýra ‘make clear’

(not checked:)
1. skýra (verb): explain, interpret

[1] skýra: stæra Bb

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mildings ‘prince’

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mildingr (noun m.; °-s): ruler, generous one

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’s ‘who’

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2. er (conj.): who, which, when

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gaf ‘gave’

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gefa (verb): give

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styrjar ‘in-battle’

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styrr (noun m.; °dat. -): battle

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snjalls ‘of the clever’

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snjallr (adj.): quick, resourceful, bold

[3] snjalls: so Bb, ‘snallz’ Flat

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of ‘about’

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3. of (prep.): around, from; too

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stilli ‘ruler’

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stillir (noun m.): ruler

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styrkjan ‘the strong’

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2. styrkr (adj.): powerful, strong

[4] styrkjan: so Bb, ‘styrkann’ Flat

notes

[4] styrkjan (m. acc. sg.) ‘strong’: Styrkr is an alternative form of the adj. sterkr showing the effect of ablaut (ANG §167). It is presumably used here for the sake of the rhyme with yrkja.

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vant ‘difficult’

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vandr (adj.): difficult

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at ‘to’

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5. at (nota): to (with infinitive)

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yrkja ‘compose’

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yrkja (verb): compose

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þvít ‘because’

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þvít (conj.): because, since

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tôkn ‘miracles’

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tákn (noun n.; °-s; -): token

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s ‘who’

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2. er (conj.): who, which, when

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læknar ‘heals’

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1. lækna (verb): heal, cure

[5] læknar: læknir Bb

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lofðungs ‘of the prince’

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lofðungr (noun m.; °; -ar): king, leader

kennings

lofðungs ranns himintungla,
‘of the prince of the house of heavenly bodies, ’
   = God

the house of heavenly bodies, → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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himin ‘of heavenly’

(not checked:)
himinn (noun m.; °himins, dat. himni; himnar): heaven, sky < himintungl (noun n.): heavenly body

[6] himin‑: vinar Bb

kennings

lofðungs ranns himintungla,
‘of the prince of the house of heavenly bodies, ’
   = God

the house of heavenly bodies, → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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himin ‘of heavenly’

(not checked:)
himinn (noun m.; °himins, dat. himni; himnar): heaven, sky < himintungl (noun n.): heavenly body

[6] himin‑: vinar Bb

kennings

lofðungs ranns himintungla,
‘of the prince of the house of heavenly bodies, ’
   = God

the house of heavenly bodies, → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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verðr ‘appears’

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1. verða (verb): become, be

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tungla ‘bodies’

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tungl (noun n.; °-s; -): heavenly body < himintungl (noun n.): heavenly body

kennings

lofðungs ranns himintungla,
‘of the prince of the house of heavenly bodies, ’
   = God

the house of heavenly bodies, → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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tungla ‘bodies’

(not checked:)
tungl (noun n.; °-s; -): heavenly body < himintungl (noun n.): heavenly body

kennings

lofðungs ranns himintungla,
‘of the prince of the house of heavenly bodies, ’
   = God

the house of heavenly bodies, → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
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verðr ‘’

(not checked:)
1. verða (verb): become, be

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kemr ‘appears’

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koma (verb; kem, kom/kvam, kominn): come

[7] kemr: verðr Bb

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of ‘about’

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3. of (prep.): around, from; too

[7] of: so Bb, um Flat

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ræsi ‘the king’

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ræsir (noun m.): ruler

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ranns ‘of the house’

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rann (noun n.): house, hall

kennings

lofðungs ranns himintungla,
‘of the prince of the house of heavenly bodies, ’
   = God

the house of heavenly bodies, → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

ranns ‘of the house’

(not checked:)
rann (noun n.): house, hall

kennings

lofðungs ranns himintungla,
‘of the prince of the house of heavenly bodies, ’
   = God

the house of heavenly bodies, → SKY/HEAVEN
the prince of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

hvert ‘one’

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2. hverr (pron.): who, whom, each, every

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á ‘after’

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3. á (prep.): on, at

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[5-8]: The helmingr works at two levels. The primary meaning is that Óláfr’s miracles are signs given by God as proof of the saint’s holiness. Þesss lið læknar ‘the one who heals men’ (l. 5) and lofðungs ranns himintungla ‘of the prince of the house of heavenly bodies’ (ll. 6, 8) clearly refer to Christ. But they can also refer to Óláfr: although the miracles are ultimately God’s, a point which Einarr emphasizes, they are also Óláfr’s in the sense that he is their efficient cause. The variant reading vinar ‘of the friend’ (vinar lofðungs ranns tungla ‘of the friend of the prince of the house of heavenly bodies [= God > = Óláfr]’), adopted in Skj B and Skald, makes the reference to Óláfr the Saint explicit in the Bb text. The two helmingar of st. 46 juxtapose not only Óláfr and Christ, but also the Óláfr who gave rings and the Óláfr who heals. These eight ll. thus concisely express the theme of the drápa, as is fitting for the st. that begins its slœmr, or concluding section.

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