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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Geisl 44VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 44’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 43-4.

Einarr SkúlasonGeisli
434445

inn ‘the’

2. inn (art.): the

[1] inn: so Bb, ‘[...]nn’ Flat

kennings

inn frœkni kundr fylkis
‘the brave descendant of a king ’
   = Óláfr

the brave descendant of a king → Óláfr
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frœkni ‘brave’

frœkn (adj.): brave, bold

kennings

inn frœkni kundr fylkis
‘the brave descendant of a king ’
   = Óláfr

the brave descendant of a king → Óláfr
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fylkis ‘of a king’

fylkir (noun m.): leader

kennings

inn frœkni kundr fylkis
‘the brave descendant of a king ’
   = Óláfr

the brave descendant of a king → Óláfr

notes

[2] kundr fylkis ‘descendant of a king’: It is unclear whether any specific one of Óláfr’s royal predecessors is implied in this kenning. The reference may be to either Haraldr hárfagri or Óláfr Tryggvason, both of whom he claimed as ancestors.

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kundr ‘descendant’

kundr (noun m.): descendant

kennings

inn frœkni kundr fylkis
‘the brave descendant of a king ’
   = Óláfr

the brave descendant of a king → Óláfr

notes

[2] kundr fylkis ‘descendant of a king’: It is unclear whether any specific one of Óláfr’s royal predecessors is implied in this kenning. The reference may be to either Haraldr hárfagri or Óláfr Tryggvason, both of whom he claimed as ancestors.

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grundar ‘the ground’

grund (noun f.): earth, land

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es ‘when’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[3] es: hinn Bb

Close

sókn ‘the battle’

sókn (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): attack, fight

[3] sókn vas: sœkja Bb

Close

þorði ‘dared’

þora (verb): dare

Close

vas ‘was’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[3] sókn vas: sœkja Bb

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orðin ‘over’

orðinn (adj./verb p.p.): become

[3] orðin: þorði Bb

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sœnskr ‘A Swedish’

sœnskr (adj.): Swedish

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þrœnzkum ‘from Trøndelag’

þrœnzkr (adj.): from Trøndelag

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hefir ‘has’

hafa (verb): have

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vas ‘was’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[5] vas: so Bb, ‘hefir’ Flat

notes

[5, 8] vas ... fundinn ‘was ... found’: Although Flat’s hefr … fundisk is grammatically possible, ‘(that sword) … has (later) been found’, l. 5 then lacks internal rhyme, which Bb’s reading (sá vashva) provides.

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ins ‘of the’

2. inn (art.): the

kennings

ins hôva gunndjarfs stríðanda hrings
‘of the tall, battle-eager enemy of the ring ’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Óláfr

the tall, battle-eager enemy of the ring → GENEROUS MAN = Óláfr
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hôva ‘tall’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high

kennings

ins hôva gunndjarfs stríðanda hrings
‘of the tall, battle-eager enemy of the ring ’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Óláfr

the tall, battle-eager enemy of the ring → GENEROUS MAN = Óláfr
Close

hrings ‘of the ring’

1. hringr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ar): ring; sword

[6] hrings: harm Bb

kennings

ins hôva gunndjarfs stríðanda hrings
‘of the tall, battle-eager enemy of the ring ’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Óláfr

the tall, battle-eager enemy of the ring → GENEROUS MAN = Óláfr
Close

stríðanda ‘enemy’

stríðandi (noun m.): fighter

[6] stríðanda: so Bb, stríðandi Flat

kennings

ins hôva gunndjarfs stríðanda hrings
‘of the tall, battle-eager enemy of the ring ’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Óláfr

the tall, battle-eager enemy of the ring → GENEROUS MAN = Óláfr

notes

[6] stríðanda ‘enemy’: Bb’s reading must be the correct one, since the nom. form stríðandi is not grammatically feasible in the helmingr.

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gulli ‘with gold’

gull (noun n.): gold

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merktr ‘decorated’

merkja (verb): mark, signify

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í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

notes

[7, 8] í liði Girkja ‘in the army of the Greeks’: The Greek army referred to here is that of the Byzantine emperor called Kirjalax in Nordic sources, variously identified as Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081-1118) or his son John II Komnenos (r. 1118-43). See further Note to 47/7.

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Girkja ‘of the Greeks’

1. girkr (noun m.): Greek

notes

[7, 8] í liði Girkja ‘in the army of the Greeks’: The Greek army referred to here is that of the Byzantine emperor called Kirjalax in Nordic sources, variously identified as Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081-1118) or his son John II Komnenos (r. 1118-43). See further Note to 47/7.

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gunn ‘battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle, Gunnr < gunndjarfr (adj.): battle-brave

kennings

ins hôva gunndjarfs stríðanda hrings
‘of the tall, battle-eager enemy of the ring ’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Óláfr

the tall, battle-eager enemy of the ring → GENEROUS MAN = Óláfr
Close

djarfs ‘eager’

djarfr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): bold < gunndjarfr (adj.): battle-brave

kennings

ins hôva gunndjarfs stríðanda hrings
‘of the tall, battle-eager enemy of the ring ’
   = GENEROUS MAN = Óláfr

the tall, battle-eager enemy of the ring → GENEROUS MAN = Óláfr
Close

liði ‘the army’

lið (noun n.; °-s; -): retinue, troop

notes

[7, 8] í liði Girkja ‘in the army of the Greeks’: The Greek army referred to here is that of the Byzantine emperor called Kirjalax in Nordic sources, variously identified as Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081-1118) or his son John II Komnenos (r. 1118-43). See further Note to 47/7.

Close

fundinn ‘found’

Fundinn (noun m.): [found, Fundinn]

[8] fundinn: so Bb, fundizk Flat

notes

[5, 8] vas ... fundinn ‘was ... found’: Although Flat’s hefr … fundisk is grammatically possible, ‘(that sword) … has (later) been found’, l. 5 then lacks internal rhyme, which Bb’s reading (sá vashva) provides.

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[5]: After hjǫrr, the scribe of Flat has erased a word, which is no longer legible.

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