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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Geisl 20VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 20’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 23-4.

Einarr SkúlasonGeisli
192021

Gerðusk ‘were wrought’

1. gera (verb): do, make

[1] Gerðusk: ‘Gerdiz’ Flat, ‘Giordizt’ Bb

Close

þás ‘when’

2. þá (adv.): then

[1] þás (‘þá er’): þar er Bb

notes

[1, 7] þás, þás ‘when, when’: Flat has þás (‘þá er’) ‘when’ in both these cases, but Bb has þars (‘þar er’) ‘where’ in l. 1 and því at ‘because’ in l. 7. These variants make quite a difference to the sense of the st. In the first case, Bb’s version suggests that miracles were wrought on the battlefield, while Flat’s indicates they occurred after the battle has taken place. In the second instance Bb suggests that the light burned over Óláfr’s body because God had taken it to heaven on the same day he died (as in ÓHLeg 1982, 196, quoted in Chase 2005, 36-7), whereas Flat is again concerned with chronology. Skj B adopts Bb’s readings in ll. 1, and 8, but Skald does so in l. 1 only.

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brodd ‘the point’

broddr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ar): point of spear or arrow < broddrjóðr (noun m.)

kennings

broddrjóðr
‘the point-reddener ’
   = WARRIOR

the point-reddener → WARRIOR
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rjóðr ‘reddener’

1. rjóðr (noun m.): reddener < broddrjóðr (noun m.)

kennings

broddrjóðr
‘the point-reddener ’
   = WARRIOR

the point-reddener → WARRIOR
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vanðit ‘did not accustom’

2. venja (verb): accustom, train

[3] vanðit: ‘vandiz’ Flat, ‘firde’ Bb

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miklar ‘Great’

mikill (adj.; °mikinn): great, large

[4] miklar: so Bb, ‘milar’ Flat

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vísa ‘of the prince’

vísi (noun m.; °-a): leader

[5] vísa: ræsis Bb

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lǫg ‘of the sea’

lǫgr (noun m.; °lagar, dat. legi): sea < lǫgskíð (noun n.)

kennings

sendis lǫgskíðs
‘of the sender of the sea-ski ’
   = SEAFARER

the sea-ski → SHIP
the sender of the SHIP → SEAFARER
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lǫg ‘of the sea’

lǫgr (noun m.; °lagar, dat. legi): sea < lǫgskíð (noun n.)

kennings

sendis lǫgskíðs
‘of the sender of the sea-ski ’
   = SEAFARER

the sea-ski → SHIP
the sender of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

skíðs ‘ski’

skíð (noun n.; °; -): ski < lǫgskíð (noun n.)

kennings

sendis lǫgskíðs
‘of the sender of the sea-ski ’
   = SEAFARER

the sea-ski → SHIP
the sender of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

skíðs ‘ski’

skíð (noun n.; °; -): ski < lǫgskíð (noun n.)

kennings

sendis lǫgskíðs
‘of the sender of the sea-ski ’
   = SEAFARER

the sea-ski → SHIP
the sender of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

þás ‘when’

2. þá (adv.): then

[7] þás (‘þá er’): því at Bb

notes

[1, 7] þás, þás ‘when, when’: Flat has þás (‘þá er’) ‘when’ in both these cases, but Bb has þars (‘þar er’) ‘where’ in l. 1 and því at ‘because’ in l. 7. These variants make quite a difference to the sense of the st. In the first case, Bb’s version suggests that miracles were wrought on the battlefield, while Flat’s indicates they occurred after the battle has taken place. In the second instance Bb suggests that the light burned over Óláfr’s body because God had taken it to heaven on the same day he died (as in ÓHLeg 1982, 196, quoted in Chase 2005, 36-7), whereas Flat is again concerned with chronology. Skj B adopts Bb’s readings in ll. 1, and 8, but Skald does so in l. 1 only.

Close

sendis ‘of the sender’

sendir (noun m.): sender, distributor

[7] sendis: ‘sendiz’ Flat, ‘syndiz’ Bb

kennings

sendis lǫgskíðs
‘of the sender of the sea-ski ’
   = SEAFARER

the sea-ski → SHIP
the sender of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

sam ‘on the same’

samr (adj.; °compar. -ari): same < samdœgris (adv.)

[8] samdœgris: ‘sam dægrs’ Flat, ‘samdægurs’ Bb

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dœgris ‘day’

dœgr (noun n.; °-s; -): day and night; 24h period < samdœgris (adv.)

[8] samdœgris: ‘sam dægrs’ Flat, ‘samdægurs’ Bb

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

There are numerous variant readings in this st., though in most cases the better choice is clear. However, it is necessary to emend l. 1 Gerðusk (following an original suggestion of Cederschiöld) to give a 3rd pers. pret. m.v. verb ‘were wrought’, l. 3 vanðit ‘[he] did not accustom’, l. 7 sendis ‘of the sender’ (where both mss have -‘z’, probably indicating a m.v. ending) and l. 8 samdægris ‘on the same day’ (to give a six-syllable l.).

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