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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Elfv 1II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Elfarvísur 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 566-7.

Einarr SkúlasonElfarvísur
12

af ‘from’

af (prep.): from

[1] af: so all others, á Kˣ

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mar ‘of the sea’

1. marr (noun m.): sea < marblakkr (noun m.): [sea-steed]

[2] marblakks: markblakks E, ‘marbaks’ Hr

kennings

marblakks
‘of the sea-steed ’
   = SHIP

the sea-steed → SHIP
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blakks ‘steed’

1. blakkr (noun m.): horse < marblakkr (noun m.): [sea-steed]

[2] marblakks: markblakks E, ‘marbaks’ Hr

kennings

marblakks
‘of the sea-steed ’
   = SHIP

the sea-steed → SHIP
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fekksk ‘was given’

2. fá (verb; °fǽr; fekk, fengu; fenginn): get, receive

[3] fekksk: fekk H, Hr

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gýgjar ‘of the troll-woman’

gýgr (noun f.): troll-woman

kennings

Glaum gýgjar;
‘to the Glaumr of the troll-woman; ’
   = WOLF

to the Glaumr of the troll-woman; → WOLF
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Glaum ‘to the Glaumr’

2. Glaumr (noun m.): Glaumr

[4] Glaum: glaumr H, Hr

kennings

Glaum gýgjar;
‘to the Glaumr of the troll-woman; ’
   = WOLF

to the Glaumr of the troll-woman; → WOLF

notes

[4] Glaum ‘to the Glaumr <horse>’: Glaumr was a legendary horse (see LP: Glaumr 1).

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‘carrion’

ná (noun f.): carrion

[4] ná: ‘gna’ Hr

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Elfr ‘Götaälv’

elfr (noun f.): river

notes

[5] Elfr ‘the Götaälv’: River in south-western present-day Sweden.

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varð ‘was’

1. verða (verb): become, be

[5] varð: var E, J2ˣ, 42ˣ, H, Hr, U, B, C

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unda ‘of wounds’

1. und (noun f.; °; -ir): wound

[5] unda: undra J2ˣ, 42ˣ

kennings

heitu gjalfri unda;
‘by the hot surge of wounds; ’
   = BLOOD

by the hot surge of wounds; → BLOOD
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gjalfri ‘surge’

gjalfr (noun n.; °-s): surge, waves

kennings

heitu gjalfri unda;
‘by the hot surge of wounds; ’
   = BLOOD

by the hot surge of wounds; → BLOOD
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eitrkǫld ‘The bitter-cold’

eitrkaldr (adj.): [bitter-cold]

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roðin ‘reddened’

rjóða (verb): to redden

[6] roðin heitu: ‘roð[...]’ B, 744ˣ;    roðin: drifin C

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heitu ‘by the hot’

heitr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): hot, ardent

[6] roðin heitu: ‘roð[...]’ B, 744ˣ;    heitu: sveita A(1r)

kennings

heitu gjalfri unda;
‘by the hot surge of wounds; ’
   = BLOOD

by the hot surge of wounds; → BLOOD
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vitnis ‘of the wolf’

vitnir (noun m.): wolf

[7] vitnis fell með vatni: ‘[...]’ B, ‘vitníss fell með vatne’ 744ˣ;    vitnis: ‘víndis’ Hr

kennings

varmt ǫlðr vitnis
‘the warm ale of the wolf ’
   = BLOOD

the warm ale of the wolf → BLOOD
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fell ‘flowed’

falla (verb): fall

[7] vitnis fell með vatni: ‘[...]’ B, ‘vitníss fell með vatne’ 744ˣ

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með ‘with’

með (prep.): with

[7] vitnis fell með vatni: ‘[...]’ B, ‘vitníss fell með vatne’ 744ˣ

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vatni ‘the water’

vatn (noun n.; °-s; -*): water, lake

[7] vitnis fell með vatni: ‘[...]’ B, ‘vitníss fell með vatne’ 744ˣ;    vatni: vandi Hr

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varmt ‘the warm’

varmr (adj.; °compar. -ari): warm

[8] varmt: vart R, ‘[...]armt’ B

kennings

varmt ǫlðr vitnis
‘the warm ale of the wolf ’
   = BLOOD

the warm ale of the wolf → BLOOD
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ǫlðr ‘ale’

ǫlðr (noun n.; °-s/-): ale

[8] ǫlðr: blóð F, C, eldr U, hold B

kennings

varmt ǫlðr vitnis
‘the warm ale of the wolf ’
   = BLOOD

the warm ale of the wolf → BLOOD
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í ‘into’

í (prep.): in, into

[8] í men: í mun H, Hr, U, ‘[...]m[...]’ B, ‘í men’ 744ˣ

notes

[8] í men Karmtar ‘into the necklace of Karmøy <island> [SEA]’: Karmøy is an island in Rogaland, south-western Norway. Einarr is fond of using Norw. islands as determinants in his kennings for ‘sea’; see ESk Lv 14-15III.

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men ‘the necklace’

2. men (noun n.; °; dat. menjum): neck-ring

[8] í men: í mun H, Hr, U, ‘[...]m[...]’ B, ‘í men’ 744ˣ

kennings

men Karmtar.
‘the necklace of Karmøy.’
   = SEA

the necklace of Karmøy. → SEA

notes

[8] í men Karmtar ‘into the necklace of Karmøy <island> [SEA]’: Karmøy is an island in Rogaland, south-western Norway. Einarr is fond of using Norw. islands as determinants in his kennings for ‘sea’; see ESk Lv 14-15III.

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Karmtar ‘of Karmøy’

Kǫrmt (noun f.): [Karmøy]

[8] Karmtar: ‘carmt’ Tˣ

kennings

men Karmtar.
‘the necklace of Karmøy.’
   = SEA

the necklace of Karmøy. → SEA

notes

[8] í men Karmtar ‘into the necklace of Karmøy <island> [SEA]’: Karmøy is an island in Rogaland, south-western Norway. Einarr is fond of using Norw. islands as determinants in his kennings for ‘sea’; see ESk Lv 14-15III.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In Hkr and H-Hr sts 1-2 commemorate the battle of the Götaälv. In SnE (Skm) the second helmingr illustrates that vitnir is a heiti for ‘wolf’, and in GrammSkáld the consonant clusters -lfr- and -rmt- are given as examples of features that enhance the aesthetic quality of poetry.

Grégóríus, Ingi and Erlingr had the upper hand in this battle. After Hákon’s ship had been cleared, his men leaped from the other ships into the water. Many were killed but the main contingent was able to swim ashore.

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