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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Bragi Rdr 5III

Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.) 2017, ‘Bragi inn gamli Boddason, Ragnarsdrápa 5’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 35.

Bragi inn gamli BoddasonRagnarsdrápa
456

Þar ‘There’

þar (adv.): there

Close

gyrðan ‘encircled’

gyrðr (adj.): [encircled]

Close

golf ‘of the floor’

golf (noun n.): floor < golfhǫlkvir (noun m.)

kennings

sá golfhǫlkvis
‘the vat of the floor-steed ’
   = BED

the floor-steed → HOUSE
the vat of the HOUSE → BED

notes

[2] sá golfhǫlkvis ‘the vat of the floor-steed [HOUSE > BED]’: Some commentators (e.g. Dronke 1969, 211-12) have understood as the 3rd pers. pret. sg. of the verb sjá ‘see’, but this requires emendation of ‑hǫlkvis to ‑hǫlkvi and adoption of R’s and ’s fylkir ‘ruler’ as subject of the clause. A majority of scholars, including the present ed., understand as acc. sg. of sár m. ‘vessel, tub, vat’, forming the base-word of a tvíkent bed-kenning. Golfhǫlkvir ‘floor-steed’ is then a house-kenning (cf. Meissner 430-1), referring to Jǫrmunrekkr’s hall. Hǫlkvir occurs as a horse-heiti in several contexts (e.g. Akv 30/7, SnE 1998, I, 89, Anon Kálfv 4/5, where it refers to the hero Hǫgni’s horse). Kock (NN §1916) regards hǫlkvir as a ship-heiti, and it is possible that the word could have had both senses (AEW: hǫlkvir). Bed-kennings are uncommon in skaldic verse, and sár, with its probably mundane associations, is never used elsewhere in the corpus (see LP: sár). Bragi is likely to have chosen it at least partly a) for metrical reasons (Gade 1995a, 29-30); b) because it extends the metaphor of the verb gyrða ‘encircle’ (with a band or hoop); and c) because it connotes a vessel containing liquid, the implicit parallel being with Jǫrmunrekkr’s maimed and bleeding body, shorn of arms and legs. Marold (1994c, 569-71), however, sees the referent of sár as Jǫrmunrekkr’s sleeping chamber, formed from planks of wood.

Close

golf ‘of the floor’

golf (noun n.): floor < golfhǫlkvir (noun m.)

kennings

sá golfhǫlkvis
‘the vat of the floor-steed ’
   = BED

the floor-steed → HOUSE
the vat of the HOUSE → BED

notes

[2] sá golfhǫlkvis ‘the vat of the floor-steed [HOUSE > BED]’: Some commentators (e.g. Dronke 1969, 211-12) have understood as the 3rd pers. pret. sg. of the verb sjá ‘see’, but this requires emendation of ‑hǫlkvis to ‑hǫlkvi and adoption of R’s and ’s fylkir ‘ruler’ as subject of the clause. A majority of scholars, including the present ed., understand as acc. sg. of sár m. ‘vessel, tub, vat’, forming the base-word of a tvíkent bed-kenning. Golfhǫlkvir ‘floor-steed’ is then a house-kenning (cf. Meissner 430-1), referring to Jǫrmunrekkr’s hall. Hǫlkvir occurs as a horse-heiti in several contexts (e.g. Akv 30/7, SnE 1998, I, 89, Anon Kálfv 4/5, where it refers to the hero Hǫgni’s horse). Kock (NN §1916) regards hǫlkvir as a ship-heiti, and it is possible that the word could have had both senses (AEW: hǫlkvir). Bed-kennings are uncommon in skaldic verse, and sár, with its probably mundane associations, is never used elsewhere in the corpus (see LP: sár). Bragi is likely to have chosen it at least partly a) for metrical reasons (Gade 1995a, 29-30); b) because it extends the metaphor of the verb gyrða ‘encircle’ (with a band or hoop); and c) because it connotes a vessel containing liquid, the implicit parallel being with Jǫrmunrekkr’s maimed and bleeding body, shorn of arms and legs. Marold (1994c, 569-71), however, sees the referent of sár as Jǫrmunrekkr’s sleeping chamber, formed from planks of wood.

Close

hǫlkvis ‘steed’

hǫlkvir (noun m.): [horse, steed] < golfhǫlkvir (noun m.)

kennings

sá golfhǫlkvis
‘the vat of the floor-steed ’
   = BED

the floor-steed → HOUSE
the vat of the HOUSE → BED

notes

[2] sá golfhǫlkvis ‘the vat of the floor-steed [HOUSE > BED]’: Some commentators (e.g. Dronke 1969, 211-12) have understood as the 3rd pers. pret. sg. of the verb sjá ‘see’, but this requires emendation of ‑hǫlkvis to ‑hǫlkvi and adoption of R’s and ’s fylkir ‘ruler’ as subject of the clause. A majority of scholars, including the present ed., understand as acc. sg. of sár m. ‘vessel, tub, vat’, forming the base-word of a tvíkent bed-kenning. Golfhǫlkvir ‘floor-steed’ is then a house-kenning (cf. Meissner 430-1), referring to Jǫrmunrekkr’s hall. Hǫlkvir occurs as a horse-heiti in several contexts (e.g. Akv 30/7, SnE 1998, I, 89, Anon Kálfv 4/5, where it refers to the hero Hǫgni’s horse). Kock (NN §1916) regards hǫlkvir as a ship-heiti, and it is possible that the word could have had both senses (AEW: hǫlkvir). Bed-kennings are uncommon in skaldic verse, and sár, with its probably mundane associations, is never used elsewhere in the corpus (see LP: sár). Bragi is likely to have chosen it at least partly a) for metrical reasons (Gade 1995a, 29-30); b) because it extends the metaphor of the verb gyrða ‘encircle’ (with a band or hoop); and c) because it connotes a vessel containing liquid, the implicit parallel being with Jǫrmunrekkr’s maimed and bleeding body, shorn of arms and legs. Marold (1994c, 569-71), however, sees the referent of sár as Jǫrmunrekkr’s sleeping chamber, formed from planks of wood.

Close

hǫlkvis ‘steed’

hǫlkvir (noun m.): [horse, steed] < golfhǫlkvir (noun m.)

kennings

sá golfhǫlkvis
‘the vat of the floor-steed ’
   = BED

the floor-steed → HOUSE
the vat of the HOUSE → BED

notes

[2] sá golfhǫlkvis ‘the vat of the floor-steed [HOUSE > BED]’: Some commentators (e.g. Dronke 1969, 211-12) have understood as the 3rd pers. pret. sg. of the verb sjá ‘see’, but this requires emendation of ‑hǫlkvis to ‑hǫlkvi and adoption of R’s and ’s fylkir ‘ruler’ as subject of the clause. A majority of scholars, including the present ed., understand as acc. sg. of sár m. ‘vessel, tub, vat’, forming the base-word of a tvíkent bed-kenning. Golfhǫlkvir ‘floor-steed’ is then a house-kenning (cf. Meissner 430-1), referring to Jǫrmunrekkr’s hall. Hǫlkvir occurs as a horse-heiti in several contexts (e.g. Akv 30/7, SnE 1998, I, 89, Anon Kálfv 4/5, where it refers to the hero Hǫgni’s horse). Kock (NN §1916) regards hǫlkvir as a ship-heiti, and it is possible that the word could have had both senses (AEW: hǫlkvir). Bed-kennings are uncommon in skaldic verse, and sár, with its probably mundane associations, is never used elsewhere in the corpus (see LP: sár). Bragi is likely to have chosen it at least partly a) for metrical reasons (Gade 1995a, 29-30); b) because it extends the metaphor of the verb gyrða ‘encircle’ (with a band or hoop); and c) because it connotes a vessel containing liquid, the implicit parallel being with Jǫrmunrekkr’s maimed and bleeding body, shorn of arms and legs. Marold (1994c, 569-71), however, sees the referent of sár as Jǫrmunrekkr’s sleeping chamber, formed from planks of wood.

Close

‘the vat’

1. sár (noun m.; °; sáir/sár): [vat, wound]

kennings

sá golfhǫlkvis
‘the vat of the floor-steed ’
   = BED

the floor-steed → HOUSE
the vat of the HOUSE → BED

notes

[2] sá golfhǫlkvis ‘the vat of the floor-steed [HOUSE > BED]’: Some commentators (e.g. Dronke 1969, 211-12) have understood as the 3rd pers. pret. sg. of the verb sjá ‘see’, but this requires emendation of ‑hǫlkvis to ‑hǫlkvi and adoption of R’s and ’s fylkir ‘ruler’ as subject of the clause. A majority of scholars, including the present ed., understand as acc. sg. of sár m. ‘vessel, tub, vat’, forming the base-word of a tvíkent bed-kenning. Golfhǫlkvir ‘floor-steed’ is then a house-kenning (cf. Meissner 430-1), referring to Jǫrmunrekkr’s hall. Hǫlkvir occurs as a horse-heiti in several contexts (e.g. Akv 30/7, SnE 1998, I, 89, Anon Kálfv 4/5, where it refers to the hero Hǫgni’s horse). Kock (NN §1916) regards hǫlkvir as a ship-heiti, and it is possible that the word could have had both senses (AEW: hǫlkvir). Bed-kennings are uncommon in skaldic verse, and sár, with its probably mundane associations, is never used elsewhere in the corpus (see LP: sár). Bragi is likely to have chosen it at least partly a) for metrical reasons (Gade 1995a, 29-30); b) because it extends the metaphor of the verb gyrða ‘encircle’ (with a band or hoop); and c) because it connotes a vessel containing liquid, the implicit parallel being with Jǫrmunrekkr’s maimed and bleeding body, shorn of arms and legs. Marold (1994c, 569-71), however, sees the referent of sár as Jǫrmunrekkr’s sleeping chamber, formed from planks of wood.

Close

fylkis ‘of the ruler’

fylkir (noun m.): leader

[2] fylkis: so C, fylkir R, Tˣ

Close

segls ‘of the sail’

segl (noun n.; °-s; -): sail

kennings

siglur segls naglfara,
‘the masts of the sail of the nail-studded one, ’
   = WARRIORS

the sail of the nail-studded one, → SHIELD
the masts of the SHIELD → WARRIORS

notes

[3-4] siglur segls naglfara, andvanar saums ‘the masts of the sail of the nail-studded one <ship’s planking> [SHIELD > WARRIORS], lacking nails’: The interpretation of this elaborate kenning has occasioned much debate (see Marold 1994c, 571-2 for a summary). Here it is understood that siglur ‘masts’ stands for a group of the Gothic warriors, who defend their injured leader by surrounding his bed. The phrase andvanar saums ‘lacking nails’ (saumr is a collective noun for ‘ship’s nails’) further defines what kind of ‘masts’ these are by indicating what they are not, i.e. they lack the kinds of nails that ships contain; they are mast-like, and so men. Bragi then extends the parallel between men and masts in a clever nýgerving when he calls the warriors ‘masts of the sail of the nail-studded one’, repeating his nautical and his nail analogy, with reference to naglfara < naglfari ‘something studded or decorated with nails’ (so Lie 1954). This cpd occurs in several other contexts: in þulur as a sword-heiti (Þul Sverða 8/4, SnE 1998, I, 120) or as a ship-heiti (Þul Skipa 1/7, SnE 1998, I, 127); in the shield-kenning borð naglfara ‘board of the nail-studded one’ (Ggnæv Frag 1/2-3), where naglfari may refer either to a sword (so SnE 1998, II, 361) or a ship (so Marold 1994c, 574-5); as the name of the husband of Night in Gylf (SnE 2005, 13) and (probably connected by Snorri with nagl ‘nail’ of the body by popular etymology) as the name of the ship Naglfar or Naglfari in which a company of fire-giants and monsters travel to oppose the gods at Ragnarǫk (SnE 2005, 50). Opinion is divided on whether Bragi is using naglfari in this kenning as a sword- or a ship-heiti, but Marold’s (1994c, 572-7) advocacy of a reference to ship’s planking fits better with the nautical imagery of the kenning, and has been adopted here. Kock (NN §2720) proposed a different syntactical arrangement, siglur naglfara, andvanar saums segls ‘masts of the nail-studded one <sword>, lacking a sewn sail’, taking saumr as ‘sewing’ rather than ‘nail(s)’, a sense which it appears to have only in the pl. (cf. Fritzner: saumr 2).

Close

segls ‘of the sail’

segl (noun n.; °-s; -): sail

kennings

siglur segls naglfara,
‘the masts of the sail of the nail-studded one, ’
   = WARRIORS

the sail of the nail-studded one, → SHIELD
the masts of the SHIELD → WARRIORS

notes

[3-4] siglur segls naglfara, andvanar saums ‘the masts of the sail of the nail-studded one <ship’s planking> [SHIELD > WARRIORS], lacking nails’: The interpretation of this elaborate kenning has occasioned much debate (see Marold 1994c, 571-2 for a summary). Here it is understood that siglur ‘masts’ stands for a group of the Gothic warriors, who defend their injured leader by surrounding his bed. The phrase andvanar saums ‘lacking nails’ (saumr is a collective noun for ‘ship’s nails’) further defines what kind of ‘masts’ these are by indicating what they are not, i.e. they lack the kinds of nails that ships contain; they are mast-like, and so men. Bragi then extends the parallel between men and masts in a clever nýgerving when he calls the warriors ‘masts of the sail of the nail-studded one’, repeating his nautical and his nail analogy, with reference to naglfara < naglfari ‘something studded or decorated with nails’ (so Lie 1954). This cpd occurs in several other contexts: in þulur as a sword-heiti (Þul Sverða 8/4, SnE 1998, I, 120) or as a ship-heiti (Þul Skipa 1/7, SnE 1998, I, 127); in the shield-kenning borð naglfara ‘board of the nail-studded one’ (Ggnæv Frag 1/2-3), where naglfari may refer either to a sword (so SnE 1998, II, 361) or a ship (so Marold 1994c, 574-5); as the name of the husband of Night in Gylf (SnE 2005, 13) and (probably connected by Snorri with nagl ‘nail’ of the body by popular etymology) as the name of the ship Naglfar or Naglfari in which a company of fire-giants and monsters travel to oppose the gods at Ragnarǫk (SnE 2005, 50). Opinion is divided on whether Bragi is using naglfari in this kenning as a sword- or a ship-heiti, but Marold’s (1994c, 572-7) advocacy of a reference to ship’s planking fits better with the nautical imagery of the kenning, and has been adopted here. Kock (NN §2720) proposed a different syntactical arrangement, siglur naglfara, andvanar saums segls ‘masts of the nail-studded one <sword>, lacking a sewn sail’, taking saumr as ‘sewing’ rather than ‘nail(s)’, a sense which it appears to have only in the pl. (cf. Fritzner: saumr 2).

Close

naglfara ‘of the nail-studded one’

Naglfari (noun m.): nail-studded one

kennings

siglur segls naglfara,
‘the masts of the sail of the nail-studded one, ’
   = WARRIORS

the sail of the nail-studded one, → SHIELD
the masts of the SHIELD → WARRIORS

notes

[3-4] siglur segls naglfara, andvanar saums ‘the masts of the sail of the nail-studded one <ship’s planking> [SHIELD > WARRIORS], lacking nails’: The interpretation of this elaborate kenning has occasioned much debate (see Marold 1994c, 571-2 for a summary). Here it is understood that siglur ‘masts’ stands for a group of the Gothic warriors, who defend their injured leader by surrounding his bed. The phrase andvanar saums ‘lacking nails’ (saumr is a collective noun for ‘ship’s nails’) further defines what kind of ‘masts’ these are by indicating what they are not, i.e. they lack the kinds of nails that ships contain; they are mast-like, and so men. Bragi then extends the parallel between men and masts in a clever nýgerving when he calls the warriors ‘masts of the sail of the nail-studded one’, repeating his nautical and his nail analogy, with reference to naglfara < naglfari ‘something studded or decorated with nails’ (so Lie 1954). This cpd occurs in several other contexts: in þulur as a sword-heiti (Þul Sverða 8/4, SnE 1998, I, 120) or as a ship-heiti (Þul Skipa 1/7, SnE 1998, I, 127); in the shield-kenning borð naglfara ‘board of the nail-studded one’ (Ggnæv Frag 1/2-3), where naglfari may refer either to a sword (so SnE 1998, II, 361) or a ship (so Marold 1994c, 574-5); as the name of the husband of Night in Gylf (SnE 2005, 13) and (probably connected by Snorri with nagl ‘nail’ of the body by popular etymology) as the name of the ship Naglfar or Naglfari in which a company of fire-giants and monsters travel to oppose the gods at Ragnarǫk (SnE 2005, 50). Opinion is divided on whether Bragi is using naglfari in this kenning as a sword- or a ship-heiti, but Marold’s (1994c, 572-7) advocacy of a reference to ship’s planking fits better with the nautical imagery of the kenning, and has been adopted here. Kock (NN §2720) proposed a different syntactical arrangement, siglur naglfara, andvanar saums segls ‘masts of the nail-studded one <sword>, lacking a sewn sail’, taking saumr as ‘sewing’ rather than ‘nail(s)’, a sense which it appears to have only in the pl. (cf. Fritzner: saumr 2).

Close

naglfara ‘of the nail-studded one’

Naglfari (noun m.): nail-studded one

kennings

siglur segls naglfara,
‘the masts of the sail of the nail-studded one, ’
   = WARRIORS

the sail of the nail-studded one, → SHIELD
the masts of the SHIELD → WARRIORS

notes

[3-4] siglur segls naglfara, andvanar saums ‘the masts of the sail of the nail-studded one <ship’s planking> [SHIELD > WARRIORS], lacking nails’: The interpretation of this elaborate kenning has occasioned much debate (see Marold 1994c, 571-2 for a summary). Here it is understood that siglur ‘masts’ stands for a group of the Gothic warriors, who defend their injured leader by surrounding his bed. The phrase andvanar saums ‘lacking nails’ (saumr is a collective noun for ‘ship’s nails’) further defines what kind of ‘masts’ these are by indicating what they are not, i.e. they lack the kinds of nails that ships contain; they are mast-like, and so men. Bragi then extends the parallel between men and masts in a clever nýgerving when he calls the warriors ‘masts of the sail of the nail-studded one’, repeating his nautical and his nail analogy, with reference to naglfara < naglfari ‘something studded or decorated with nails’ (so Lie 1954). This cpd occurs in several other contexts: in þulur as a sword-heiti (Þul Sverða 8/4, SnE 1998, I, 120) or as a ship-heiti (Þul Skipa 1/7, SnE 1998, I, 127); in the shield-kenning borð naglfara ‘board of the nail-studded one’ (Ggnæv Frag 1/2-3), where naglfari may refer either to a sword (so SnE 1998, II, 361) or a ship (so Marold 1994c, 574-5); as the name of the husband of Night in Gylf (SnE 2005, 13) and (probably connected by Snorri with nagl ‘nail’ of the body by popular etymology) as the name of the ship Naglfar or Naglfari in which a company of fire-giants and monsters travel to oppose the gods at Ragnarǫk (SnE 2005, 50). Opinion is divided on whether Bragi is using naglfari in this kenning as a sword- or a ship-heiti, but Marold’s (1994c, 572-7) advocacy of a reference to ship’s planking fits better with the nautical imagery of the kenning, and has been adopted here. Kock (NN §2720) proposed a different syntactical arrangement, siglur naglfara, andvanar saums segls ‘masts of the nail-studded one <sword>, lacking a sewn sail’, taking saumr as ‘sewing’ rather than ‘nail(s)’, a sense which it appears to have only in the pl. (cf. Fritzner: saumr 2).

Close

siglur ‘the masts’

1. sigla (noun f.; °-u): mast

kennings

siglur segls naglfara,
‘the masts of the sail of the nail-studded one, ’
   = WARRIORS

the sail of the nail-studded one, → SHIELD
the masts of the SHIELD → WARRIORS

notes

[3-4] siglur segls naglfara, andvanar saums ‘the masts of the sail of the nail-studded one <ship’s planking> [SHIELD > WARRIORS], lacking nails’: The interpretation of this elaborate kenning has occasioned much debate (see Marold 1994c, 571-2 for a summary). Here it is understood that siglur ‘masts’ stands for a group of the Gothic warriors, who defend their injured leader by surrounding his bed. The phrase andvanar saums ‘lacking nails’ (saumr is a collective noun for ‘ship’s nails’) further defines what kind of ‘masts’ these are by indicating what they are not, i.e. they lack the kinds of nails that ships contain; they are mast-like, and so men. Bragi then extends the parallel between men and masts in a clever nýgerving when he calls the warriors ‘masts of the sail of the nail-studded one’, repeating his nautical and his nail analogy, with reference to naglfara < naglfari ‘something studded or decorated with nails’ (so Lie 1954). This cpd occurs in several other contexts: in þulur as a sword-heiti (Þul Sverða 8/4, SnE 1998, I, 120) or as a ship-heiti (Þul Skipa 1/7, SnE 1998, I, 127); in the shield-kenning borð naglfara ‘board of the nail-studded one’ (Ggnæv Frag 1/2-3), where naglfari may refer either to a sword (so SnE 1998, II, 361) or a ship (so Marold 1994c, 574-5); as the name of the husband of Night in Gylf (SnE 2005, 13) and (probably connected by Snorri with nagl ‘nail’ of the body by popular etymology) as the name of the ship Naglfar or Naglfari in which a company of fire-giants and monsters travel to oppose the gods at Ragnarǫk (SnE 2005, 50). Opinion is divided on whether Bragi is using naglfari in this kenning as a sword- or a ship-heiti, but Marold’s (1994c, 572-7) advocacy of a reference to ship’s planking fits better with the nautical imagery of the kenning, and has been adopted here. Kock (NN §2720) proposed a different syntactical arrangement, siglur naglfara, andvanar saums segls ‘masts of the nail-studded one <sword>, lacking a sewn sail’, taking saumr as ‘sewing’ rather than ‘nail(s)’, a sense which it appears to have only in the pl. (cf. Fritzner: saumr 2).

Close

saums ‘nails’

saumr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): nail, seam

notes

[3-4] siglur segls naglfara, andvanar saums ‘the masts of the sail of the nail-studded one <ship’s planking> [SHIELD > WARRIORS], lacking nails’: The interpretation of this elaborate kenning has occasioned much debate (see Marold 1994c, 571-2 for a summary). Here it is understood that siglur ‘masts’ stands for a group of the Gothic warriors, who defend their injured leader by surrounding his bed. The phrase andvanar saums ‘lacking nails’ (saumr is a collective noun for ‘ship’s nails’) further defines what kind of ‘masts’ these are by indicating what they are not, i.e. they lack the kinds of nails that ships contain; they are mast-like, and so men. Bragi then extends the parallel between men and masts in a clever nýgerving when he calls the warriors ‘masts of the sail of the nail-studded one’, repeating his nautical and his nail analogy, with reference to naglfara < naglfari ‘something studded or decorated with nails’ (so Lie 1954). This cpd occurs in several other contexts: in þulur as a sword-heiti (Þul Sverða 8/4, SnE 1998, I, 120) or as a ship-heiti (Þul Skipa 1/7, SnE 1998, I, 127); in the shield-kenning borð naglfara ‘board of the nail-studded one’ (Ggnæv Frag 1/2-3), where naglfari may refer either to a sword (so SnE 1998, II, 361) or a ship (so Marold 1994c, 574-5); as the name of the husband of Night in Gylf (SnE 2005, 13) and (probably connected by Snorri with nagl ‘nail’ of the body by popular etymology) as the name of the ship Naglfar or Naglfari in which a company of fire-giants and monsters travel to oppose the gods at Ragnarǫk (SnE 2005, 50). Opinion is divided on whether Bragi is using naglfari in this kenning as a sword- or a ship-heiti, but Marold’s (1994c, 572-7) advocacy of a reference to ship’s planking fits better with the nautical imagery of the kenning, and has been adopted here. Kock (NN §2720) proposed a different syntactical arrangement, siglur naglfara, andvanar saums segls ‘masts of the nail-studded one <sword>, lacking a sewn sail’, taking saumr as ‘sewing’ rather than ‘nail(s)’, a sense which it appears to have only in the pl. (cf. Fritzner: saumr 2).

Close

anvanar ‘’

Close

andvanar ‘lacking’

1. andvanr (adj.): life-lacking

[4] andvanar: so Tˣ, C, ‘anvanar’ R

notes

[3-4] siglur segls naglfara, andvanar saums ‘the masts of the sail of the nail-studded one <ship’s planking> [SHIELD > WARRIORS], lacking nails’: The interpretation of this elaborate kenning has occasioned much debate (see Marold 1994c, 571-2 for a summary). Here it is understood that siglur ‘masts’ stands for a group of the Gothic warriors, who defend their injured leader by surrounding his bed. The phrase andvanar saums ‘lacking nails’ (saumr is a collective noun for ‘ship’s nails’) further defines what kind of ‘masts’ these are by indicating what they are not, i.e. they lack the kinds of nails that ships contain; they are mast-like, and so men. Bragi then extends the parallel between men and masts in a clever nýgerving when he calls the warriors ‘masts of the sail of the nail-studded one’, repeating his nautical and his nail analogy, with reference to naglfara < naglfari ‘something studded or decorated with nails’ (so Lie 1954). This cpd occurs in several other contexts: in þulur as a sword-heiti (Þul Sverða 8/4, SnE 1998, I, 120) or as a ship-heiti (Þul Skipa 1/7, SnE 1998, I, 127); in the shield-kenning borð naglfara ‘board of the nail-studded one’ (Ggnæv Frag 1/2-3), where naglfari may refer either to a sword (so SnE 1998, II, 361) or a ship (so Marold 1994c, 574-5); as the name of the husband of Night in Gylf (SnE 2005, 13) and (probably connected by Snorri with nagl ‘nail’ of the body by popular etymology) as the name of the ship Naglfar or Naglfari in which a company of fire-giants and monsters travel to oppose the gods at Ragnarǫk (SnE 2005, 50). Opinion is divided on whether Bragi is using naglfari in this kenning as a sword- or a ship-heiti, but Marold’s (1994c, 572-7) advocacy of a reference to ship’s planking fits better with the nautical imagery of the kenning, and has been adopted here. Kock (NN §2720) proposed a different syntactical arrangement, siglur naglfara, andvanar saums segls ‘masts of the nail-studded one <sword>, lacking a sewn sail’, taking saumr as ‘sewing’ rather than ‘nail(s)’, a sense which it appears to have only in the pl. (cf. Fritzner: saumr 2).

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standa ‘stand’

standa (verb): stand

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snemst ‘very soon’

snemmr (adj.): soon, early

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samráða ‘by common resolve’

samráða (adj.): [by common resolve]

notes

[6] samráða ‘by common resolve’: The adv. (Finnur Jónsson 1930-1, 262) refers to the Gothic warriors, who stone Hamðir and Sǫrli, apparently (cf. st. 6 and Hamð 25) on Jǫrmunrekkr’s orders. Later sources (e.g. Saxo, Vǫls) represent Óðinn as initiating the stoning, but there is no evidence that Bragi alluded to this idea (contra Brady 1940 and Dronke 1969, 207-8) and it does not appear in SnE either.

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Hamðir ‘Hamðir’

Hamðir (noun m.): Hamðir

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halum ‘’

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hǫrðum ‘with hard’

harðr (adj.; °comp. -ari; superl. -astr): hard, harsh

[7] hǫrðum: ‘halum’ C

kennings

hǫrðum herðimýlum vinu Hergauts.
‘with hard shoulder-lumps of the mistress of Hergautr.’
   = STONES

the mistress of Hergautr. → Jǫrð
with hard shoulder-lumps of JǪRÐ → STONES
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herðimýlum ‘shoulder-lumps’

herðimýill (noun m.): [shoulder-lumps]

kennings

hǫrðum herðimýlum vinu Hergauts.
‘with hard shoulder-lumps of the mistress of Hergautr.’
   = STONES

the mistress of Hergautr. → Jǫrð
with hard shoulder-lumps of JǪRÐ → STONES
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Hergauts ‘of Hergautr’

Hergautr (noun m.): Hergautr

kennings

hǫrðum herðimýlum vinu Hergauts.
‘with hard shoulder-lumps of the mistress of Hergautr.’
   = STONES

the mistress of Hergautr. → Jǫrð
with hard shoulder-lumps of JǪRÐ → STONES
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Hergauts ‘of Hergautr’

Hergautr (noun m.): Hergautr

kennings

hǫrðum herðimýlum vinu Hergauts.
‘with hard shoulder-lumps of the mistress of Hergautr.’
   = STONES

the mistress of Hergautr. → Jǫrð
with hard shoulder-lumps of JǪRÐ → STONES
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vinu ‘of the mistress’

vina (noun f.; °-u; -ur): women friend, mistress

[8] vinu: vinum C

kennings

hǫrðum herðimýlum vinu Hergauts.
‘with hard shoulder-lumps of the mistress of Hergautr.’
   = STONES

the mistress of Hergautr. → Jǫrð
with hard shoulder-lumps of JǪRÐ → STONES
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vinu ‘of the mistress’

vina (noun f.; °-u; -ur): women friend, mistress

[8] vinu: vinum C

kennings

hǫrðum herðimýlum vinu Hergauts.
‘with hard shoulder-lumps of the mistress of Hergautr.’
   = STONES

the mistress of Hergautr. → Jǫrð
with hard shoulder-lumps of JǪRÐ → STONES
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See Context to st. 3. This stanza follows immediately upon Rdr 4 in three mss of SnE, R, and C.

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