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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Bjbp Jóms 32I

Emily Lethbridge (ed.) 2012, ‘Bjarni byskup Kolbeinsson, Jómsvíkingadrápa 32’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 987.

Bjarni byskup KolbeinssonJómsvíkingadrápa
313233

frák ‘I have heard’

1. fregna (verb): hear of

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œða ‘stirred’

œða (verb): infuriate

[2] œða: œðask all others

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Hǫlga ‘Hǫlgi’s’

Hǫlgi (noun m.): Hǫlgi < hǫlgabrúðr (noun f.): hǫlgabrúðr

[2] Hǫlga‑: haulda 53, 54, Bb

notes

[2] Hǫlgabrúði (f. acc. sg.) ‘Hǫlgi’s bride [= Þorgerðr]’: This is Hákon jarl’s patroness, the giantess Þorgerðr. According to SnE (1998, I, 60), Hǫlgi was the eponymous ruler of Hálogaland (Hålogaland) and Þorgerðr was his daughter (and hence brúðr may have the more general sense ‘woman’ here, cf. LP: brúðr 3); sacrifices were made to both of them. The first element of Hǫlgabrúðr also occurs elsewhere as Hǫrga-, Hǫrða- and Hǫlða- and the second as ‑troll; see further Jvs 1962, 36-7, 51-2; McKinnell (2002); Røthe (2007). The R reading ‑brúði adopted here (as in Skj B and Skald) forms an acc. with inf. construction with (frák ...) œða ‘(I have heard ...) stirred up’, lit. ‘(I have heard ...) to stir up’, so that Hǫlgabrúðr is the agent who raises the storm. The ÓT reading f. gen. sg. -brúðar would qualify él ‘blizzard’ and œðask would be intransitive, hence ‘I have heard the terrible storm of Hǫlgi’s bride raged’.

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brúði ‘bride’

brúðr (noun f.; °brúðar, dat. & acc. brúði; brúðir): woman, bride < hǫlgabrúðr (noun f.): hǫlgabrúðr

[2] ‑brúði: brúðar all others

notes

[2] Hǫlgabrúði (f. acc. sg.) ‘Hǫlgi’s bride [= Þorgerðr]’: This is Hákon jarl’s patroness, the giantess Þorgerðr. According to SnE (1998, I, 60), Hǫlgi was the eponymous ruler of Hálogaland (Hålogaland) and Þorgerðr was his daughter (and hence brúðr may have the more general sense ‘woman’ here, cf. LP: brúðr 3); sacrifices were made to both of them. The first element of Hǫlgabrúðr also occurs elsewhere as Hǫrga-, Hǫrða- and Hǫlða- and the second as ‑troll; see further Jvs 1962, 36-7, 51-2; McKinnell (2002); Røthe (2007). The R reading ‑brúði adopted here (as in Skj B and Skald) forms an acc. with inf. construction with (frák ...) œða ‘(I have heard ...) stirred up’, lit. ‘(I have heard ...) to stir up’, so that Hǫlgabrúðr is the agent who raises the storm. The ÓT reading f. gen. sg. -brúðar would qualify él ‘blizzard’ and œðask would be intransitive, hence ‘I have heard the terrible storm of Hǫlgi’s bride raged’.

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glumði ‘resounded’

glymja (verb): resound

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hlífum ‘shields’

hlíf (noun f.; °-ar; -ar): shield, defence

[3] hlífum: hjálmum all others

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harða ‘very’

harða (adv.): very

[4] harða: harðla 53, Bb, ‘hadla’ 54

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þar ‘where’

þar (adv.): there

[5] þar er: þá er 53

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er ‘’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[5] þar er: þá er 53

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orm ‘the snake’

ormr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): serpent < ormfránn (adj.)

notes

[5] ormfrán augu ‘the snake-flashing eyes’: The collocation is also found in Sigv ErfÓl 13/7, 8, referring to Óláfr helgi, and in Hundk Lv 1/5, 6VIII (HjǪ 29). On the topos of the flashing eyes of the warlord, see Marold (1998a).

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frán ‘flashing’

2. fránn (adj.): bright, shining < ormfránn (adj.)

notes

[5] ormfrán augu ‘the snake-flashing eyes’: The collocation is also found in Sigv ErfÓl 13/7, 8, referring to Óláfr helgi, and in Hundk Lv 1/5, 6VIII (HjǪ 29). On the topos of the flashing eyes of the warlord, see Marold (1998a).

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augu ‘eyes’

auga (noun n.; °auga; augu/augun, gen. augna): eye

notes

[5] ormfrán augu ‘the snake-flashing eyes’: The collocation is also found in Sigv ErfÓl 13/7, 8, referring to Óláfr helgi, and in Hundk Lv 1/5, 6VIII (HjǪ 29). On the topos of the flashing eyes of the warlord, see Marold (1998a).

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skýja ‘of clouds’

ský (noun n.; °-s; -): cloud

kennings

grjóti skýja,
‘the gravel of clouds, ’
   = HAIL

the gravel of clouds, → HAIL
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grjóti ‘the gravel’

grjót (noun n.): rock, stone

[6] grjóti: gráti Bb

kennings

grjóti skýja,
‘the gravel of clouds, ’
   = HAIL

the gravel of clouds, → HAIL
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því ‘therefore’

því (adv.): therefore, because

[7] því: þá 54, Bb

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knátti ‘’

knega (verb): to know, understand, be able to

[7] knátti: náði all others

notes

[7] knátti ben blása ‘wounds swelled’: Knátti, lit. ‘could’, is a pleonastic auxiliary. Blása ‘swell’ is used impersonally (see CVC: blása III), so ben ‘wound(s)’ is acc. and presumably pl. The same construction is assumed in Fms 12, 44, 245 and Skj B, but blása is taken to refer to a noise made by the wounds (also LP: blása 4, where it is the only example). An alternative construal is that the understood subject of knátti is the hail-storm and blása is transitive, with ben as its object, hence ‘it blasted wounds’.

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ben ‘wounds’

2. ben (noun n.; °-s; -): wound

notes

[7] knátti ben blása ‘wounds swelled’: Knátti, lit. ‘could’, is a pleonastic auxiliary. Blása ‘swell’ is used impersonally (see CVC: blása III), so ben ‘wound(s)’ is acc. and presumably pl. The same construction is assumed in Fms 12, 44, 245 and Skj B, but blása is taken to refer to a noise made by the wounds (also LP: blása 4, where it is the only example). An alternative construal is that the understood subject of knátti is the hail-storm and blása is transitive, with ben as its object, hence ‘it blasted wounds’.

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blása ‘swelled’

2. blása (verb; °blǽss; blés, blésu; blásinn): blow

notes

[7] knátti ben blása ‘wounds swelled’: Knátti, lit. ‘could’, is a pleonastic auxiliary. Blása ‘swell’ is used impersonally (see CVC: blása III), so ben ‘wound(s)’ is acc. and presumably pl. The same construction is assumed in Fms 12, 44, 245 and Skj B, but blása is taken to refer to a noise made by the wounds (also LP: blása 4, where it is the only example). An alternative construal is that the understood subject of knátti is the hail-storm and blása is transitive, with ben as its object, hence ‘it blasted wounds’.

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hreggi ‘by the storm’

hregg (noun n.): storm

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Hákon boards his ship again and rejoins the fray; he incites his troop and tells them that victory is assured. A great storm blows up against the Jómsvíkingar.

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