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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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BjHall Kálffl 2I

Alison Finlay (ed.) 2012, ‘Bjarni gullbrárskáld Hallbjarnarson, Kálfsflokkr 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 880.

Bjarni gullbrárskáld HallbjarnarsonKálfsflokkr
123

fekk ‘came off’

2. fá (verb; °fǽr; fekk, fengu; fenginn): get, receive

notes

[1] fekk illt ‘came off badly’: Lit. ‘got (something) bad’.

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illt ‘badly’

illr (adj.): bad, evil, unwell

notes

[1] fekk illt ‘came off badly’: Lit. ‘got (something) bad’.

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ór ‘from’

3. ór (prep.): out of

[1] ór: af 325VII

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deildum ‘the exchanges’

deild (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): conflict, exchange

[1] deildum: gjǫldum 61, 75c, Flat, Tóm, 325XI 2 b

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Erlingr ‘Erlingr’

Erlingr (noun m.): Erlingr

[2] Erlingr: ‘er[…]gr’ Kˣ

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vas ‘was’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[2] vas (‘var’): varð Flat

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þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

[2] þar: þá 321ˣ, 73aˣ, Holm4

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finginn ‘captured’

2. fá (verb; °fǽr; fekk, fengu; fenginn): get, receive

notes

[2] finginn ‘captured’: This form, rather than fenginn as in several mss, is required for the aðalhending with -ing-.

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óðu ‘advanced’

vaða (verb): advance, wade

[3] óðu: óðum Flat, ‘[…]o’ Kˣ

notes

[3-4] blǫkk borð óðu í blóði ‘black planks advanced through blood’: Borð ‘plank’ (here nom. pl.) is frequently used as a pars pro toto expression for ‘ship’ (Jesch 2001a, 140), as it may be here, but the literal meaning is also possible, and would allow for reference to a single ship, perhaps specifically Erlingr’s, rather than generally to all those involved in the battle. The adj. blakkr ‘dark, black’ may suggest the tarring of the hull, as in Þloft Tøgdr 3/2, 4 kolsvartir viðir ‘coal-black ships’. Bleik ‘pale’ in several ÓH mss and brún ‘brown’ in Fsk are also metrically possible.

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blǫkk ‘black’

2. blakkr (adj.): black

[3] blǫkk: bleik 61, 75c, 325V, 325VII, Bb, Flat, Tóm, 325XI 2 b, brún FskAˣ

notes

[3-4] blǫkk borð óðu í blóði ‘black planks advanced through blood’: Borð ‘plank’ (here nom. pl.) is frequently used as a pars pro toto expression for ‘ship’ (Jesch 2001a, 140), as it may be here, but the literal meaning is also possible, and would allow for reference to a single ship, perhaps specifically Erlingr’s, rather than generally to all those involved in the battle. The adj. blakkr ‘dark, black’ may suggest the tarring of the hull, as in Þloft Tøgdr 3/2, 4 kolsvartir viðir ‘coal-black ships’. Bleik ‘pale’ in several ÓH mss and brún ‘brown’ in Fsk are also metrically possible.

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í ‘through’

í (prep.): in, into

notes

[3-4] blǫkk borð óðu í blóði ‘black planks advanced through blood’: Borð ‘plank’ (here nom. pl.) is frequently used as a pars pro toto expression for ‘ship’ (Jesch 2001a, 140), as it may be here, but the literal meaning is also possible, and would allow for reference to a single ship, perhaps specifically Erlingr’s, rather than generally to all those involved in the battle. The adj. blakkr ‘dark, black’ may suggest the tarring of the hull, as in Þloft Tøgdr 3/2, 4 kolsvartir viðir ‘coal-black ships’. Bleik ‘pale’ in several ÓH mss and brún ‘brown’ in Fsk are also metrically possible.

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blóði ‘blood’

blóð (noun n.; °-s): blood

notes

[3-4] blǫkk borð óðu í blóði ‘black planks advanced through blood’: Borð ‘plank’ (here nom. pl.) is frequently used as a pars pro toto expression for ‘ship’ (Jesch 2001a, 140), as it may be here, but the literal meaning is also possible, and would allow for reference to a single ship, perhaps specifically Erlingr’s, rather than generally to all those involved in the battle. The adj. blakkr ‘dark, black’ may suggest the tarring of the hull, as in Þloft Tøgdr 3/2, 4 kolsvartir viðir ‘coal-black ships’. Bleik ‘pale’ in several ÓH mss and brún ‘brown’ in Fsk are also metrically possible.

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borð ‘planks’

borð (noun n.; °-s; -): side, plank, board; table

[4] borð: ‘[…]orð’ Kˣ

notes

[3-4] blǫkk borð óðu í blóði ‘black planks advanced through blood’: Borð ‘plank’ (here nom. pl.) is frequently used as a pars pro toto expression for ‘ship’ (Jesch 2001a, 140), as it may be here, but the literal meaning is also possible, and would allow for reference to a single ship, perhaps specifically Erlingr’s, rather than generally to all those involved in the battle. The adj. blakkr ‘dark, black’ may suggest the tarring of the hull, as in Þloft Tøgdr 3/2, 4 kolsvartir viðir ‘coal-black ships’. Bleik ‘pale’ in several ÓH mss and brún ‘brown’ in Fsk are also metrically possible.

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Útstein ‘Utstein’

Útsteinn (noun m.): Utsteinen, Utstein

notes

[4] Útstein ‘Utstein’: Við Útstein ‘near Utstein’ is also named in Sigv Erlfl 5/7 (see Note).

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es ‘is’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[5] es (‘er’): varð FskAˣ

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raun ‘clear’

raun (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): ordeal, proof, experience

[5] raun: rann 73aˣ, Flat

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at ‘that’

4. at (conj.): that

[5] at: þar er Flat

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ræsir ‘the ruler’

ræsir (noun m.): ruler

[5] ræsir: ræsis 321ˣ, ræsi 325V

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ráðinn ‘deprived’

ráða (verb): advise, rule, interpret, decide

notes

[6] ráðinn ‘deprived’: Or perhaps ‘betrayed’. This reference to the king losing control of the land appears to be to a later consequence of the battle of Bókn, which is predicted in the prose narratives when Óláfr recognizes Áslákr Fitjaskalli’s capture and killing of Erlingr Skjálgsson as ‘striking Norway out of my [Óláfr’s] hands’ (e.g. ÍF 27, 317; ÍF 29, 195). As Finnur Jónsson remarks (Hkr 1893-1901, IV), the poem was composed long after Óláfr’s death (1030).

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varð ‘was’

1. verða (verb): become, be

[6] varð: var 321ˣ, 73aˣ, Holm4, Tóm, 325XI 2 b, FskAˣ

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láði ‘his country’

2. láð (noun n.): earth, land

[6] láði: liði Tóm

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lǫgðusk ‘became subject’

leggja (verb): put, lay

[7] lǫgðusk lǫnd: lagðisk land Kˣ

notes

[7] lǫnd lǫgðusk ‘lands became subject’: The sg. reading land lagðisk ‘land became subject’ in Hkr is also possible. — [7] lǫnd lǫgðusk und Egða ‘lands became subject to the Egðir’: The exact political event or situation alluded to here is uncertain, though cf. Note to l. 6. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) suggests that the people of Agðir (Agder), the southernmost region of Norway, may stand for those of the whole of south-west Norway which resisted Óláfr.

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lǫgðusk ‘became subject’

leggja (verb): put, lay

[7] lǫgðusk lǫnd: lagðisk land Kˣ

notes

[7] lǫnd lǫgðusk ‘lands became subject’: The sg. reading land lagðisk ‘land became subject’ in Hkr is also possible. — [7] lǫnd lǫgðusk und Egða ‘lands became subject to the Egðir’: The exact political event or situation alluded to here is uncertain, though cf. Note to l. 6. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) suggests that the people of Agðir (Agder), the southernmost region of Norway, may stand for those of the whole of south-west Norway which resisted Óláfr.

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lǫnd ‘lands’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land

[7] lǫgðusk lǫnd: lagðisk land Kˣ;    lǫnd: ‘aund’ 321ˣ

notes

[7] lǫnd lǫgðusk ‘lands became subject’: The sg. reading land lagðisk ‘land became subject’ in Hkr is also possible. — [7] lǫnd lǫgðusk und Egða ‘lands became subject to the Egðir’: The exact political event or situation alluded to here is uncertain, though cf. Note to l. 6. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) suggests that the people of Agðir (Agder), the southernmost region of Norway, may stand for those of the whole of south-west Norway which resisted Óláfr.

Close

lǫnd ‘lands’

land (noun n.; °-s; *-): land

[7] lǫgðusk lǫnd: lagðisk land Kˣ;    lǫnd: ‘aund’ 321ˣ

notes

[7] lǫnd lǫgðusk ‘lands became subject’: The sg. reading land lagðisk ‘land became subject’ in Hkr is also possible. — [7] lǫnd lǫgðusk und Egða ‘lands became subject to the Egðir’: The exact political event or situation alluded to here is uncertain, though cf. Note to l. 6. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) suggests that the people of Agðir (Agder), the southernmost region of Norway, may stand for those of the whole of south-west Norway which resisted Óláfr.

Close

und ‘to’

3. und (prep.): under, underneath

notes

[7] lǫnd lǫgðusk und Egða ‘lands became subject to the Egðir’: The exact political event or situation alluded to here is uncertain, though cf. Note to l. 6. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) suggests that the people of Agðir (Agder), the southernmost region of Norway, may stand for those of the whole of south-west Norway which resisted Óláfr.

Close

Egða ‘the Egðir’

egðir (noun m.): the Egðir

notes

[7] lǫnd lǫgðusk und Egða ‘lands became subject to the Egðir’: The exact political event or situation alluded to here is uncertain, though cf. Note to l. 6. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) suggests that the people of Agðir (Agder), the southernmost region of Norway, may stand for those of the whole of south-west Norway which resisted Óláfr.

Close

þeira ‘their’

hann (pron.; °gen. hans, dat. honum; f. hon, gen. hennar, acc. hana): he, she, it, they, them...

notes

[4] Útstein ‘Utstein’: Við Útstein ‘near Utstein’ is also named in Sigv Erlfl 5/7 (see Note).

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frák ‘I heard’

1. fregna (verb): hear of

[8] frák (‘fra ec’): frá frá ek 325VII, ⸜var⸝ Flat, ‘[…] ek’ 325XI 2 b

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