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Bersi Ólfl 3I

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2012, ‘Bersi Skáld-Torfuson, Flokkr about Óláfr helgi 3’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 794.

Bersi Skáld-TorfusonFlokkr about Óláfr helgi
23

Krýpk ‘crawl’

krjúpa (verb): creep, kneel

[1] Krýpk (‘Kryp ec’): ‘kryp(or) ec’(?) 325VI, krýp 75a, 61, krýp ek ek 68, ‘Kreyp ec’ Tóm

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eigi ‘I do not’

3. eigi (adv.): not

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svá ‘in such a way’

svá (adv.): so, thus

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sveigir ‘Swinger’

sveigir (noun m.): brandisher

[1] sveigir: sveigr R686ˣ, síðan 325VII, Bb

kennings

Sveigir linns sára,
‘Swinger of the snake of wounds, ’
   = WARRIOR

the snake of wounds, → SWORD
Swinger of the SWORD → WARRIOR
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sára ‘of wounds’

2. sár (noun n.; °-s; -): wound

kennings

Sveigir linns sára,
‘Swinger of the snake of wounds, ’
   = WARRIOR

the snake of wounds, → SWORD
Swinger of the SWORD → WARRIOR
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sára ‘of wounds’

2. sár (noun n.; °-s; -): wound

kennings

Sveigir linns sára,
‘Swinger of the snake of wounds, ’
   = WARRIOR

the snake of wounds, → SWORD
Swinger of the SWORD → WARRIOR
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linns ‘of the snake’

linnr (noun m.): snake

[2] linns: logs Holm4

kennings

Sveigir linns sára,
‘Swinger of the snake of wounds, ’
   = WARRIOR

the snake of wounds, → SWORD
Swinger of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

linns ‘of the snake’

linnr (noun m.): snake

[2] linns: logs Holm4

kennings

Sveigir linns sára,
‘Swinger of the snake of wounds, ’
   = WARRIOR

the snake of wounds, → SWORD
Swinger of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

í ‘early on we are’

í (prep.): in, into

[2] í: og R686ˣ

notes

[2] í ári ‘early on’: This adverbial could be taken with either clause in the first helmingr, and its sense is somewhat elusive. Although ‘this year’ would be a natural translation, ‘early, at daybreak’, or ‘early, soon, quickly’ seem more likely in context (so Finnur Jónsson in Hkr 1893-1901, IV; he prefers the latter in Skj B and LP: 2. ár 5; cf. Kock’s case for ‘in a hurry’, NN §3222). In Hkr 1991 the phrase is taken with the krýpk-clause and understood as ‘this year, at present’. The variant í vári ‘in the spring’ is viable but seems to be secondary.

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ári ‘’

2. ár (noun n.; °-s; -): year, year’s abundance

[2] ári: vári 325V, 325VII, Flat, Tóm

notes

[2] í ári ‘early on’: This adverbial could be taken with either clause in the first helmingr, and its sense is somewhat elusive. Although ‘this year’ would be a natural translation, ‘early, at daybreak’, or ‘early, soon, quickly’ seem more likely in context (so Finnur Jónsson in Hkr 1893-1901, IV; he prefers the latter in Skj B and LP: 2. ár 5; cf. Kock’s case for ‘in a hurry’, NN §3222). In Hkr 1991 the phrase is taken with the krýpk-clause and understood as ‘this year, at present’. The variant í vári ‘in the spring’ is viable but seems to be secondary.

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búum ‘readying’

2. búa (verb; °býr (1. pers. býg NjM 330²⁴); bjó/bjuggi/bjǫggi/byggi, bjuggu/bjǫggu (præt. conj. byggi); búinn (n. sg. búit/bút)): prepare, ready, live

[3] búum: búinn Flat, Tóm

notes

[3] búum ‘we are [I am] readying’: The point about readying or preparing a ship is not entirely clear, but it seems to be a promise of service, despite not abandoning former friends (so Finnur Jónsson in Hkr 1893-1901, IV; ÍF 27). If búumk is not taken as ‘prepare’ but ‘dwell, inhabit’ it could instead be a reference to the speaker’s captivity on board ship (so Hkr 1991, which favours taking þér til handa with krýpk eigi svá, hence ‘I do not crawl thus into your power’).

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ólítinn ‘a not small’

ólítill (adj.): not small

[3] ólítinn: ‘ollyit(um)’(?) R686ˣ

kennings

ólítinn ǫndur Áta
‘a not small ski of Áti ’
   = SHIP

a not small ski of Áti → SHIP
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Áta ‘of Áti’

Áti (noun m.): Áti

[3] Áta: úti Holm2, R686ˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VI, 75a, 68, 61, Holm4, 325V, 325VII, Bb, Flat, Tóm

kennings

ólítinn ǫndur Áta
‘a not small ski of Áti ’
   = SHIP

a not small ski of Áti → SHIP

notes

[3] Áta ‘of Áti <sea-king>’: Only this, the reading of , makes sense of ǫndur ‘ski’ in l. 4 by providing the necessary determinant for a ship-kenning; the majority variant úti must have arisen because the name Áti was relatively unfamiliar.

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ǫndur ‘ski’

andr (noun m.; °; andrar): ski

[4] ǫndur: endr Flat, Tóm

kennings

ólítinn ǫndur Áta
‘a not small ski of Áti ’
   = SHIP

a not small ski of Áti → SHIP
Close

handa ‘’

handa (prep.): [for]

[4] handa: halda Holm2

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her ‘army’

herr (noun m.; °-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra): army, host < herstefnir (noun m.): army-leader

kennings

heiðmildr herstefnir,
‘reward-generous army commander, ’
   = RULER

reward-generous army commander, → RULER
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stefnir ‘commander’

stefnir (noun m.): commander < herstefnir (noun m.): army-leader

[5] ‑stefnir: ‑stefni Holm2, R686ˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VI, 75a, 325V, 325VII, Flat

kennings

heiðmildr herstefnir,
‘reward-generous army commander, ’
   = RULER

reward-generous army commander, → RULER
Close

hafnak ‘I forsake’

1. hafna (verb): abandon, reject

notes

[5, 6, 8] hafnak, eða þá leiðumk, hollvini mína ‘I forsake, or else then tire of, my loyal friends’: Hafna ‘forsake’ normally takes a dat. object; the acc. pl. object hollvini mína ‘my loyal friends’ is determined by leiðumk ‘I tire of’.

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heið ‘reward’

2. heið (noun n.; °; -): clear sky < heiðmildr (adj.)

kennings

heiðmildr herstefnir,
‘reward-generous army commander, ’
   = RULER

reward-generous army commander, → RULER
Close

mildr ‘generous’

mildr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr): mild, gentle, gracious, generous < heiðmildr (adj.)

[6] ‑mildr: ‘‑millr’ 325VII

kennings

heiðmildr herstefnir,
‘reward-generous army commander, ’
   = RULER

reward-generous army commander, → RULER
Close

eða ‘or else’

eða (conj.): or

[6] eða: er 325VI, en 75a, né 68, 61

notes

[5, 6, 8] hafnak, eða þá leiðumk, hollvini mína ‘I forsake, or else then tire of, my loyal friends’: Hafna ‘forsake’ normally takes a dat. object; the acc. pl. object hollvini mína ‘my loyal friends’ is determined by leiðumk ‘I tire of’.

Close

þá ‘then’

2. þá (adv.): then

notes

[5, 6, 8] hafnak, eða þá leiðumk, hollvini mína ‘I forsake, or else then tire of, my loyal friends’: Hafna ‘forsake’ normally takes a dat. object; the acc. pl. object hollvini mína ‘my loyal friends’ is determined by leiðumk ‘I tire of’.

Close

leiðumk ‘tire of’

2. leiða (verb; -dd): lead; (-sk) grow tired

notes

[5, 6, 8] hafnak, eða þá leiðumk, hollvini mína ‘I forsake, or else then tire of, my loyal friends’: Hafna ‘forsake’ normally takes a dat. object; the acc. pl. object hollvini mína ‘my loyal friends’ is determined by leiðumk ‘I tire of’.

Close

ungr ‘young’

ungr (adj.): young

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kunnak ‘I got to know’

kunna (verb): know, can, be able

[7] kunnak (‘kunna ec’): kunnig Flat

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þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

[7] þar: þá Holm2, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VI, 75a, Holm4, Bb, Tóm, þat 68, 61, þann Flat

notes

[7] þar ‘there’: This may well mean ‘among them’ (so Hkr 1893-1901, IV; ÍF 27). It is taken, rather awkwardly, with ll. 5-6 in Skj B.

Close

þrøngvi ‘enemy’

þrøngvi (noun m.; °-a): enemy, oppressor

[7] þrøngvi (‘þreyngvi’): ‘þrǫngar’ 325VI, þengill 68, þrøngvir 61

notes

[7] þrøngvi ‘enemy’: Lit. ‘forcer, oppressor’; this is among heiti for ‘enemy’ in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 107).

Close

holl ‘loyal’

hollr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): loyal < hollvinr (noun m.): loyal friend

notes

[5, 6, 8] hafnak, eða þá leiðumk, hollvini mína ‘I forsake, or else then tire of, my loyal friends’: Hafna ‘forsake’ normally takes a dat. object; the acc. pl. object hollvini mína ‘my loyal friends’ is determined by leiðumk ‘I tire of’.

Close

vini ‘friends’

vinr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -/(-i OsvReyk 92.17); -ir): friend < hollvinr (noun m.): loyal friend

[8] ‑vini mína: ‑vina minna 68

notes

[5, 6, 8] hafnak, eða þá leiðumk, hollvini mína ‘I forsake, or else then tire of, my loyal friends’: Hafna ‘forsake’ normally takes a dat. object; the acc. pl. object hollvini mína ‘my loyal friends’ is determined by leiðumk ‘I tire of’.

Close

mína ‘my’

minn (pron.; °f. mín, n. mitt): my

[8] ‑vini mína: ‑vina minna 68

notes

[5, 6, 8] hafnak, eða þá leiðumk, hollvini mína ‘I forsake, or else then tire of, my loyal friends’: Hafna ‘forsake’ normally takes a dat. object; the acc. pl. object hollvini mína ‘my loyal friends’ is determined by leiðumk ‘I tire of’.

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