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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Arn Magndr 2II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Arnórr jarlaskáld Þórðarson, Magnússdrápa 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 209-10.

Arnórr jarlaskáld ÞórðarsonMagnússdrápa
123

Þing ‘to the assembly’

þing (noun n.; °-s; -): meeting, assembly

[1] Þing: Þings 61

notes

[1, 2] bauð þjóðum út þing ‘summoned men to the assembly’: Þjóðum, the reading of most mss though not of , gives an unusual but comprehensible construction, which seems to be blended from two common patterns: (i) bauð út ... þjóðum, corresponding to bjóða út liði/leiðangri/sveitum ‘call up troops’, and (ii) bauð þing ‘ordered an assembly’ corresponding to bjóða e-t ‘order, command sth.’, as in Arn Hardr 10/1 uppgǫngu bauð yngvi ‘the prince ordered the advance ashore’. Þing ‘assembly’ usually refers to a legal assembly, but the slightly transferred sense of a military muster is suggested by the poetic context here (cf. Notes to Arn Hryn 5/7 and st. 9/2).

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bauð ‘summoned’

bjóða (verb; °býðr; bauð, buðu; boðinn (buð- Thom¹ 5²n.)): offer, order, invite

notes

[1, 2] bauð þjóðum út þing ‘summoned men to the assembly’: Þjóðum, the reading of most mss though not of , gives an unusual but comprehensible construction, which seems to be blended from two common patterns: (i) bauð út ... þjóðum, corresponding to bjóða út liði/leiðangri/sveitum ‘call up troops’, and (ii) bauð þing ‘ordered an assembly’ corresponding to bjóða e-t ‘order, command sth.’, as in Arn Hardr 10/1 uppgǫngu bauð yngvi ‘the prince ordered the advance ashore’. Þing ‘assembly’ usually refers to a legal assembly, but the slightly transferred sense of a military muster is suggested by the poetic context here (cf. Notes to Arn Hryn 5/7 and st. 9/2).

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út ‘’

út (adv.): out(side)

notes

[1, 2] bauð þjóðum út þing ‘summoned men to the assembly’: Þjóðum, the reading of most mss though not of , gives an unusual but comprehensible construction, which seems to be blended from two common patterns: (i) bauð út ... þjóðum, corresponding to bjóða út liði/leiðangri/sveitum ‘call up troops’, and (ii) bauð þing ‘ordered an assembly’ corresponding to bjóða e-t ‘order, command sth.’, as in Arn Hardr 10/1 uppgǫngu bauð yngvi ‘the prince ordered the advance ashore’. Þing ‘assembly’ usually refers to a legal assembly, but the slightly transferred sense of a military muster is suggested by the poetic context here (cf. Notes to Arn Hryn 5/7 and st. 9/2).

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inn ‘The’

2. inn (art.): the

kennings

Inn ungi eggrjóðandi
‘The young blade-reddener ’
   = WARRIOR

The young blade-reddener → WARRIOR
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ungi ‘young’

ungr (adj.): young

kennings

Inn ungi eggrjóðandi
‘The young blade-reddener ’
   = WARRIOR

The young blade-reddener → WARRIOR
Close

egg ‘blade’

1. egg (noun f.; °-jar, dat. -ju/-(var. [$1655$]: AM 75 c fol “75 c”, etc.)/-i([$1656$], cf. [$1654$] 243-244); -jar/-jur([$1657$] 16¹³n.)): edge, blade < eggrjóðandi (noun m.)

kennings

Inn ungi eggrjóðandi
‘The young blade-reddener ’
   = WARRIOR

The young blade-reddener → WARRIOR
Close

rjóðandi ‘reddener’

rjóðandi (noun m.): reddener < eggrjóðandi (noun m.)

[2] ‑rjóðandi: ‑ríðandi 39

kennings

Inn ungi eggrjóðandi
‘The young blade-reddener ’
   = WARRIOR

The young blade-reddener → WARRIOR
Close

þjóðum ‘men’

þjóð (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir): people

[2] þjóðum: so 39, F, E, J2ˣ, Holm2, 972ˣ, 325VI, 73aˣ, Holm4, 325VII, 325V, 61, Bb, Hr, Flat, þjóðu Kˣ, þjóðar Tóm

notes

[1, 2] bauð þjóðum út þing ‘summoned men to the assembly’: Þjóðum, the reading of most mss though not of , gives an unusual but comprehensible construction, which seems to be blended from two common patterns: (i) bauð út ... þjóðum, corresponding to bjóða út liði/leiðangri/sveitum ‘call up troops’, and (ii) bauð þing ‘ordered an assembly’ corresponding to bjóða e-t ‘order, command sth.’, as in Arn Hardr 10/1 uppgǫngu bauð yngvi ‘the prince ordered the advance ashore’. Þing ‘assembly’ usually refers to a legal assembly, but the slightly transferred sense of a military muster is suggested by the poetic context here (cf. Notes to Arn Hryn 5/7 and st. 9/2).

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fim ‘lively’

fimr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): agile, deft

[3] fim: fimm F, fimt 61, Tóm

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hirð ‘the troop’

hirð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-ar(FskB— 53‡)): retinue

[3] hirð: herr 39, hríð 61, Tóm

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til ‘to’

til (prep.): to

[3] til hǫmlu: í hǫmlu 39, í hǫmlur F, 325VI, Bb, Hr, Flat, at hǫmlu E, J2ˣ

notes

[3] til hǫmlu ‘to the rowing positions’: The gen. sg. hǫmlu stands for pl. here. For the sense of hamla, see Note to Arn Hryn 9/5.

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hǫmlu ‘the rowing positions’

1. hamla (noun f.; °*-u; *-ur): rowing position

[3] til hǫmlu: í hǫmlu 39, í hǫmlur F, 325VI, Bb, Hr, Flat, at hǫmlu E, J2ˣ

notes

[3] til hǫmlu ‘to the rowing positions’: The gen. sg. hǫmlu stands for pl. here. For the sense of hamla, see Note to Arn Hryn 9/5.

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her ‘war’

herr (noun m.; °-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra): army, host < herváð (noun f.)

kennings

hervæðr
‘war-garb ’
   = ARMOUR

war-garb → ARMOUR
Close

væðr ‘garb’

váð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): clothes < herváð (noun f.)

[4] ‑væðr: ‑veðr 39, J2ˣ, 325VI, Bb, ‑væðs Holm4, ‑næðr 325V, ræðr Tóm, ‑veðrs Flat

kennings

hervæðr
‘war-garb ’
   = ARMOUR

war-garb → ARMOUR
Close

ara ‘of the eagle’

1. ari (noun m.; °-a; -ar): eagle

[4] ara: ‘aara’ 61

kennings

bræðis ara
‘of the feeder of the eagle ’
   = WARRIOR

the feeder of the eagle → WARRIOR

notes

[4] bræðis ara ‘of the feeder of the eagle [WARRIOR]’: Ara is taken here as gen. sg., but gen. pl. is also possible, hence ‘feeder of eagles’.

Close

bræðis ‘of the feeder’

bræðir (noun m.): feeder

[4] bræðis: ‘bræðir’ Hr, ‘bredía’ Flat

kennings

bræðis ara
‘of the feeder of the eagle ’
   = WARRIOR

the feeder of the eagle → WARRIOR

notes

[4] bræðis ara ‘of the feeder of the eagle [WARRIOR]’: Ara is taken here as gen. sg., but gen. pl. is also possible, hence ‘feeder of eagles’.

Close

skar ‘clove’

skera (verb): cut

Close

húfi ‘hull’

húfr (noun m.; °dat. -i): hull

[5] húfi: húmi 61

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héltum ‘with rime-spread’

2. héla (verb): cover with rime

[5] héltum: so E, J2ˣ, 73aˣ, R, helltum Kˣ, 39, F, Holm2, 325VI, Holm4, 325VII, 61, Bb, Tóm, Flat, Tˣ, A, C, ‘heilltvm’ 325V, ‘huelltum’ Hr

notes

[5] héltum ‘rime-spread’: The majority of ms. readings would point to helltum (m. dat. sg. p. p. from hella) ‘poured out’; but there is sufficient support for the p. p. of héla ‘cover with rime or hoar-frost’, and cf. hélug bǫrð ‘rime-spread prows’ in Arn Hryn 11/4; cf. also EGils Selv 18/3IV.

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þjóðkonungr ‘mighty king’

þjóðkonungr (noun m.): mighty king

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austan ‘from the east’

austan (adv.): from the east

[6] austan: flaustum 325VI

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brim ‘of surf’

brim (noun n.): surf < brimlog (noun n.)

[7] brim‑: bein‑ or beim‑ Flat

kennings

rýri brimlogs
‘the diminisher of surf-fire ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

surf-fire → GOLD
the diminisher of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

brim ‘of surf’

brim (noun n.): surf < brimlog (noun n.)

[7] brim‑: bein‑ or beim‑ Flat

kennings

rýri brimlogs
‘the diminisher of surf-fire ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

surf-fire → GOLD
the diminisher of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

logs ‘fire’

log (noun n.; °; -): flame < brimlog (noun n.)

[7] ‑logs: ‑log 39, ‑laugs 325V, logns Bb

kennings

rýri brimlogs
‘the diminisher of surf-fire ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

surf-fire → GOLD
the diminisher of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

logs ‘fire’

log (noun n.; °; -): flame < brimlog (noun n.)

[7] ‑logs: ‑log 39, ‑laugs 325V, logns Bb

kennings

rýri brimlogs
‘the diminisher of surf-fire ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

surf-fire → GOLD
the diminisher of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

rýri ‘the diminisher’

rýrir (noun m.): diminsher, destroyer

[7] rýri: hlýri Bb

kennings

rýri brimlogs
‘the diminisher of surf-fire ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

surf-fire → GOLD
the diminisher of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

brún ‘sharp’

2. brúnn (adj.): brown, dark

[8] brún: so 39, F, E, J2ˣ, Holm2, 972ˣ, 325VI, 73aˣ, Holm4, 325VII, 325V, 61, Bb, Flat, R, Tˣ, A, brim Kˣ, Tóm

notes

[8] brún veðr ‘sharp gales’: The vowel of the majority variant brún is established by the full rhyme with ‑tún-. (a) Brúnn has been taken by some scholars as an adj. meaning ‘sharp, prominent, direct’, derived from brún f. ‘sharp edge’ and interchangeable with the i-mutated adj. brýnn (see Fms 12, 126; Konráð Gíslason 1866, 282-3; Finnur Jónsson in Skj B and LP); cf. other pairs with and without i-mutation such as the f. nouns bón/bœn ‘prayer’, sjón/sýn ‘sight’ or cpd adjectives in ‑lægr beside the simplex lágr ‘low’. Brúnn in Sigv ErfÓl 14/8I, which also rhymes with ‑tún-, qualifies hjǫrr ‘sword’, so that it could well mean ‘sharp’ (so ÍF 27, 381 n.), and in two C13th sts, SnSt Ht 50/4III and Sturl Hrafn 20/2, it describes a weapon and again may mean ‘sharp’ (cited by Dal, 1938, 221). The postulated phrase brún veðr ‘sharp gales’ in the present st. is also semantically plausible. Brýnn is applied to a wind (byrr) in HSt Rst 15/3, 4I, and in FGT 1972a, 222. A final point in favour of the present interpretation is that Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, describing the same voyage, speaks of a ‘raging gale’ (ótt veðr, ÞjóðA Magnfl 2/6). (b) Brúnn ‘dark-brown, black’ is used in skaldic poetry to describe blood or, in SnSt Ht 3/4III, a ship. There is no other case in recorded ON where the epithet qualifies ‘wind’ or ‘weather’, although it might be a possible description if foam or clouds were darkening the air. (c) Brimveðr ‘surf-gales’ (so ) would give good sense, but it fails to provide a rhyme with -tún-, and is very much a minority reading. It is presumably a dittography of brim(logs) in l. 7.

Close

veðr ‘gales’

2. veðr (noun n.; °-s; -): weather, wind, storm

notes

[8] brún veðr ‘sharp gales’: The vowel of the majority variant brún is established by the full rhyme with ‑tún-. (a) Brúnn has been taken by some scholars as an adj. meaning ‘sharp, prominent, direct’, derived from brún f. ‘sharp edge’ and interchangeable with the i-mutated adj. brýnn (see Fms 12, 126; Konráð Gíslason 1866, 282-3; Finnur Jónsson in Skj B and LP); cf. other pairs with and without i-mutation such as the f. nouns bón/bœn ‘prayer’, sjón/sýn ‘sight’ or cpd adjectives in ‑lægr beside the simplex lágr ‘low’. Brúnn in Sigv ErfÓl 14/8I, which also rhymes with ‑tún-, qualifies hjǫrr ‘sword’, so that it could well mean ‘sharp’ (so ÍF 27, 381 n.), and in two C13th sts, SnSt Ht 50/4III and Sturl Hrafn 20/2, it describes a weapon and again may mean ‘sharp’ (cited by Dal, 1938, 221). The postulated phrase brún veðr ‘sharp gales’ in the present st. is also semantically plausible. Brýnn is applied to a wind (byrr) in HSt Rst 15/3, 4I, and in FGT 1972a, 222. A final point in favour of the present interpretation is that Þjóðólfr Arnórsson, describing the same voyage, speaks of a ‘raging gale’ (ótt veðr, ÞjóðA Magnfl 2/6). (b) Brúnn ‘dark-brown, black’ is used in skaldic poetry to describe blood or, in SnSt Ht 3/4III, a ship. There is no other case in recorded ON where the epithet qualifies ‘wind’ or ‘weather’, although it might be a possible description if foam or clouds were darkening the air. (c) Brimveðr ‘surf-gales’ (so ) would give good sense, but it fails to provide a rhyme with -tún-, and is very much a minority reading. It is presumably a dittography of brim(logs) in l. 7.

Close

at ‘towards’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[8] at: af Flat

Close

Sigtúnum ‘Sigtuna (Sigtúnir)’

Sigtúnir (noun f.): Sigtuna

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In the kings’ sagas (Hkr, ÓH, H-Hr and Flat), Magnús continues his journey in the spring to Sweden. In SnE, Snorri includes the second helmingr in a long sequence of skaldic quotations illustrating heiti for ‘sea’, in this case salt.

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