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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Arn Magndr 1II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Arnórr jarlaskáld Þórðarson, Magnússdrápa 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 207-9.

Arnórr jarlaskáld ÞórðarsonMagnússdrápa
12

hykk ‘I mean’

2. hyggja (verb): think, consider

[1] hykk: hygg 39, F, 325VI, Flat, hygg ek FskAˣ

Close

rjóðanda ‘reddener’

rjóðandi (noun m.): reddener

[1] rjóðanda: ‘ríǫðanda’ E, rjóðan 73aˣ, rjóðandi Flat

kennings

rógǫrs rjóðanda hneitis eggja,
‘of the strife-quick reddener of the sword’s edges, ’
   = WARRIOR

the strife-quick reddener of the sword’s edges, → WARRIOR
Close

reiðu ‘of the career’

1. reiða (noun f.; °-u; -ur): chariot, equipment

[1] reiðu: réðu 39, F, 73aˣ, Holm4, 325VII, 325V, ráða E, J2ˣ, ‘rędu’ 61, ‘tedu’ Tóm

notes

[1] reiðu ‘the career’: Reiða covers a wide semantic range. This translation, like Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson’s sýsla, iðja ‘activity’ (ÍF 28), assumes that attention is here focussed on Magnús’s deeds, but reiða can also refer to a man’s material splendour, often manifested in generous entertainment or equipping of retainers.

Close

róg ‘of the strife’

róg (noun n.; °-s): strife, slander < rógǫrr (noun f.)

[2] rógǫrs: ‘roghs hyrs’ FskAˣ;    róg‑: rang 61, ‘raugg’ Tóm, ‘rǫg’ Hr

kennings

rógǫrs rjóðanda hneitis eggja,
‘of the strife-quick reddener of the sword’s edges, ’
   = WARRIOR

the strife-quick reddener of the sword’s edges, → WARRIOR
Close

ǫrs ‘quick’

ǫrr (adj.): generous, brave < rógǫrr (noun f.)

[2] rógǫrs: ‘roghs hyrs’ FskAˣ

kennings

rógǫrs rjóðanda hneitis eggja,
‘of the strife-quick reddener of the sword’s edges, ’
   = WARRIOR

the strife-quick reddener of the sword’s edges, → WARRIOR
Close

veitk ‘I know’

1. vita (verb): know

[2] veitk: veit 39, F, J2ˣ, Holm2, 972ˣ, 325VI, 73aˣ, Holm4, 325VII, 325V, 61, Bb, Tóm, Hr, Flat, ‘væict’ FskAˣ

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gǫrva ‘fully’

gǫrva (adv.): fully

[2] gǫrva: ‘gervd’ Bb, gnógar FskAˣ

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þegi ‘be silent’

þegja (verb): be silent

[3] þegi: om. 325VII, þeygi 61, Tóm

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seim ‘gold’

2. seimr (noun m.; °dat. -i): gold < seimbroti (noun m.)

[3] seim‑: seima 325VII, seims FskAˣ

kennings

seimbrotar
‘gold-breakers ’
   = GENEROUS MEN

gold-breakers → GENEROUS MEN

notes

[3] seimbrotar ‘gold-breakers [GENEROUS MEN]’: Presumably Magnús’s hirð ‘retinue’ or close band of retainers were the first audience of this memorial poem.

Close

brotar ‘breakers’

broti (noun m.; °-a; -ar): breaker < seimbroti (noun m.)

[3] ‑brotar: ‑brjótar 39, J2ˣ, 73aˣ, Bb, ‑brota Holm2, 325VI, ‑brjótr Holm4, 325V, 61, Tóm, ‘‑br(iota)’(?) 325VII, stafar FskAˣ, ‑stafir Hr, ‑staðar Flat

kennings

seimbrotar
‘gold-breakers ’
   = GENEROUS MEN

gold-breakers → GENEROUS MEN

notes

[3] seimbrotar ‘gold-breakers [GENEROUS MEN]’: Presumably Magnús’s hirð ‘retinue’ or close band of retainers were the first audience of this memorial poem.

Close

segja ‘to tell’

segja (verb): say, tell

[3] segja: seggja 61

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hneitis ‘of the sword’s’

hneitir (noun m.): sword

[4] hneitis: hneitis heitum Tóm

kennings

rógǫrs rjóðanda hneitis eggja,
‘of the strife-quick reddener of the sword’s edges, ’
   = WARRIOR

the strife-quick reddener of the sword’s edges, → WARRIOR

notes

[4] hneitis ‘of the sword’s’: See Note to ÞjóðA Magnfl 18/6.

Close

eggja ‘edges’

1. egg (noun f.; °-jar, dat. -ju/-): edge, blade

[4] eggja: eggjar J2ˣ, 61, Tóm, Hr, eggju 73aˣ

kennings

rógǫrs rjóðanda hneitis eggja,
‘of the strife-quick reddener of the sword’s edges, ’
   = WARRIOR

the strife-quick reddener of the sword’s edges, → WARRIOR
Close

Vasat ‘was not’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[5] Vasat (‘vara’): ‘vorar’ Tóm

Close

allra ‘fully’

allr (adj.): all

[5] allra: alla FskAˣ

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orm ‘of the reptile’s’

ormr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): serpent < ormsetr (noun n.): [reptile home]

[6] ormsetrs: ormsetr E, J2ˣ, orms setrs Tóm, Flat

kennings

Hati ormsetrs
‘The hater of the reptile’s home ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the reptile’s home → GOLD
The hater of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

orm ‘of the reptile’s’

ormr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): serpent < ormsetr (noun n.): [reptile home]

[6] ormsetrs: ormsetr E, J2ˣ, orms setrs Tóm, Flat

kennings

Hati ormsetrs
‘The hater of the reptile’s home ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the reptile’s home → GOLD
The hater of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

setrs ‘ home’

setr (noun n.; °-s; -): seat, abode < ormsetr (noun n.): [reptile home]

[6] ormsetrs: ormsetr E, J2ˣ, orms setrs Tóm, Flat

kennings

Hati ormsetrs
‘The hater of the reptile’s home ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the reptile’s home → GOLD
The hater of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

setrs ‘ home’

setr (noun n.; °-s; -): seat, abode < ormsetr (noun n.): [reptile home]

[6] ormsetrs: ormsetr E, J2ˣ, orms setrs Tóm, Flat

kennings

Hati ormsetrs
‘The hater of the reptile’s home ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the reptile’s home → GOLD
The hater of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

hati ‘The hater’

hati (noun m.): hater

[6] hati: hatri Tóm, bati FskAˣ

kennings

Hati ormsetrs
‘The hater of the reptile’s home ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the reptile’s home → GOLD
The hater of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN
Close

vetra ‘winters’

vetr (noun m.; °vetrar/vetrs(HómHauksb³ 173²³), dat. vetri; vetr): winter

[6] vetra: vettra F, FskAˣ, betri Tóm

Close

hraustr ‘the valiant’

hraustr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): strong, valiant

[7] hraustr: austr 61, hraust Flat

kennings

hraustr vinr Hǫrða
‘the valiant friend of the Hǫrðar, ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Magnús

the valiant friend of the Hǫrðar, → NORWEGIAN KING = Magnús
Close

þás ‘when’

þás (conj.): when

Close

herskip ‘warships’

herskip (noun n.): warship

notes

[7] herskip ‘warships’: This n. acc. noun could be grammatically sg., ‘warship’, but this seems unlikely in context.

Close

glæsti ‘arrayed’

[7] glæsti: geystusk 61, glæstu Flat

Close

Hǫrða ‘of the Hǫrðar’

Hǫrðar (noun m.): the Hǫrðar

kennings

hraustr vinr Hǫrða
‘the valiant friend of the Hǫrðar, ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Magnús

the valiant friend of the Hǫrðar, → NORWEGIAN KING = Magnús

notes

[8] vinr Hǫrða ‘friend of the Hǫrðar [NORWEGIAN KING = Magnús]’: The periphrasis anticipates the boy Magnús’s acquisition of power at the end of his voyage (cf. Note to Arn Hryn 3/4, 5).

Close

vinr ‘friend’

vinr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -/(-i OsvReyk 92.17); -ir): friend

kennings

hraustr vinr Hǫrða
‘the valiant friend of the Hǫrðar, ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Magnús

the valiant friend of the Hǫrðar, → NORWEGIAN KING = Magnús

notes

[8] vinr Hǫrða ‘friend of the Hǫrðar [NORWEGIAN KING = Magnús]’: The periphrasis anticipates the boy Magnús’s acquisition of power at the end of his voyage (cf. Note to Arn Hryn 3/4, 5).

Close

ór ‘to leave’

3. ór (prep.): out of

Close

Gǫrðum ‘Russia’

Garðar (noun m.): Russia

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Magnús Óláfsson journeys west from north-west Russia. The summary account in Fsk is brought to a close by st. 1. The others are more leisurely and incorporate at least one other st.

In Hkr and ÓH the st. is identified as being from Magnússdrápa. — [7-8]: These ll. are identical to the second couplet of a st. which is attributed in its sole ms. source, F, to Hallar-Steinn (HSt Frag 1I), the first couplet of which reads Tolf vas elds at aldri | ýsetrs hati vetra ‘The hater of the fire of the yew-bow’s rest [ARM/HAND > GOLD > GENEROUS MAN] was twelve years in age’. That st. has been taken as belonging to the opening of Hallfreðr’s Óláfsdrápa (Hallfr ÓldrI), and since a st. by Hallfreðr influenced Arn Þorfdr 24 (see Note to [All]), one cannot rule out the possibility that Magndr 1 is composed in imitation of him (a view favoured by de Vries, 1952, 165). On the other hand, the scribe of one or other st., prompted by the similarity of the ll. ormsetrs hati vetra and ýsetrs hati vetra, may have unwittingly substituted hraustr ... Gǫrðum for its original couplet, which is now lost. If so, the likelihood is that hraustr ... Gǫrðum belongs to Arnórr’s st. rather than the other, since (i) it is found in all the diverse ms. texts of Magndr 1; (ii) the adj. hraustr ‘valiant, bold’ is also applied to Magnús in st. 2/6, where it stands at the corresponding point in the st.; and (iii) the doubtful attribution of the Hallar-Steinn/Hallfreðr st. Tolf vas elds... makes its text suspect also. Cf. Fidjestøl (1982, 107), who sees it as a spurious importation from the tradition about Magnús to that of Óláfr Tryggvason.

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