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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Arn Hryn 19II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Arnórr jarlaskáld Þórðarson, Hrynhenda, Magnússdrápa 19’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 205.

Arnórr jarlaskáld ÞórðarsonHrynhenda, Magnússdrápa
181920

Eyðendr ‘the clearer’

eyðandi (noun m.): clearer, destroyer

[1] Eyðendr: ‘Eydíndr’ Hr

kennings

eyðendr Vals geima,
‘the clearer of the Valr of the ocean, ’
   = SEA-WARRIOR

the Valr of the ocean, → SHIP
the clearer of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR

notes

[1] eyðendr ‘the clearer’: Lit. ‘the clearers’. Þjóðir ‘people’ is the subject, and eyðendr object, to elska ‘love’. Eyðendr is grammatically pl. and forms a kenning with vals geima ‘the Valr <horse> of the ocean [SHIP]’ (l. 4). The sea-warrior disables his enemies’ ships by clearing them of crew and equipment in battle. This is the only example in ON poetry of a kenning formed from eyðandi and a determinant meaning ‘ship’. The reference of the kenning is slightly difficult to determine. (a) The pl. is assumed to have sg. meaning here, referring to Magnús (so Finnur Jónsson, who translates søkrigeren ‘the sea-warrior’ in Skj B). There are other examples of this phenomenon amongst kennings for ‘man’ built on pres. participles, including ættstýrǫndum (dat. pl.), lit. ‘rulers of men’, which seems to refer to Haraldr alone in Arn Hardr 16/6 (see Note). The abrupt transition to the grammatically sg. þín ‘your’ in l. 2 is not a difficulty: compare fórt ‘you (sg.) went’ and kynduð ‘you (pl.) kindled’ in st. 12, or fenguð ‘you (pl.) furnished’ and lætr þú ‘you (sg.) allow’ in st. 14. (b) It has been suggested that eyðendr Vals geima ‘clearers of the Valr of the ocean’ refers to the two kings Haraldr and Magnús (CPB II, 188 n.), but the sg. þú in l. 2 and the focus on Magnús throughout the poem render this unlikely.

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fregnk ‘I hear’

1. fregna (verb): hear of

[1] fregnk (‘fregn ec’): frá ek H, Hr

notes

[1] fregnk ‘I hear’: The pret. variant frák (so H, Hr) would give equally good sense.

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inndrótt ‘personal troop’

inndrótt (noun f.): retinue

[2] inndrótt: en drótt Flat

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hǫfð ‘held’

hafa (verb): have

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at ‘in’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[2] at minnum: at mínum Flat, ‘at míníum’ Hr

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minnum ‘memory’

1. minni (noun n.; °-s; -): memory

[2] at minnum: at mínum Flat, ‘at míníum’ Hr

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grœði ‘by the swell’

grœði (noun n.): swell

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lostins ‘lashed’

2. ljósta (verb): strike

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geima ‘of the ocean’

geimi (noun m.): ocean

kennings

eyðendr Vals geima,
‘the clearer of the Valr of the ocean, ’
   = SEA-WARRIOR

the Valr of the ocean, → SHIP
the clearer of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR

notes

[4] Vals geima ‘of the Valr <horse> of the ocean [SHIP]’: Valr, also a noun meaning ‘falcon’, occurs as the name of a horse, and is frequent in ship-kennings on the pattern ‘horse of the sea’ (see LP: 1. valr and 2. Valr). See also Þfagr Sveinn 7/7, Ólhv Hryn 8/6.

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geima ‘of the ocean’

geimi (noun m.): ocean

kennings

eyðendr Vals geima,
‘the clearer of the Valr of the ocean, ’
   = SEA-WARRIOR

the Valr of the ocean, → SHIP
the clearer of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR

notes

[4] Vals geima ‘of the Valr <horse> of the ocean [SHIP]’: Valr, also a noun meaning ‘falcon’, occurs as the name of a horse, and is frequent in ship-kennings on the pattern ‘horse of the sea’ (see LP: 1. valr and 2. Valr). See also Þfagr Sveinn 7/7, Ólhv Hryn 8/6.

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Vals ‘of the Valr’

Valr (noun m.; °; -ir): Valr, ?horse

kennings

eyðendr Vals geima,
‘the clearer of the Valr of the ocean, ’
   = SEA-WARRIOR

the Valr of the ocean, → SHIP
the clearer of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR

notes

[4] Vals geima ‘of the Valr <horse> of the ocean [SHIP]’: Valr, also a noun meaning ‘falcon’, occurs as the name of a horse, and is frequent in ship-kennings on the pattern ‘horse of the sea’ (see LP: 1. valr and 2. Valr). See also Þfagr Sveinn 7/7, Ólhv Hryn 8/6.

Close

Vals ‘of the Valr’

Valr (noun m.; °; -ir): Valr, ?horse

kennings

eyðendr Vals geima,
‘the clearer of the Valr of the ocean, ’
   = SEA-WARRIOR

the Valr of the ocean, → SHIP
the clearer of the SHIP → SEA-WARRIOR

notes

[4] Vals geima ‘of the Valr <horse> of the ocean [SHIP]’: Valr, also a noun meaning ‘falcon’, occurs as the name of a horse, and is frequent in ship-kennings on the pattern ‘horse of the sea’ (see LP: 1. valr and 2. Valr). See also Þfagr Sveinn 7/7, Ólhv Hryn 8/6.

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As for sts 3, 16, 17, and 18. In Mork and Flat, there are no introductory words, since sts 18 and 19 are treated as one st., while in H-Hr a brief link is inserted.

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