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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Arn Hryn 10II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Arnórr jarlaskáld Þórðarson, Hrynhenda, Magnússdrápa 10’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 195-6.

Arnórr jarlaskáld ÞórðarsonHrynhenda, Magnússdrápa
91011

Ljótu ‘Foul’

ljótr (adj.): ugly

[1] Ljótu: Ljótum J2ˣ, Ljótir Hr

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dreif ‘surged’

2. drífa (verb; °drífr; dreif, drifu; drifinn): drive, rush

[1] dreif: varp H, Hr, Flat

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lypting ‘the after-deck’

lyfting (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u, acc. -): after-deck

notes

[1] lypting ‘the after-deck’: The presumed derivation from lypta ‘lift’ (AEW: lypta) suggests a raised structure, and the skaldic contexts (here, in st. 16, ESk Lv 6/8 and Sigv Erlfl 3/7I) would suggest a space that is enclosed or defended in some way. However, Jesch (2001a, 153) finds little archaeological evidence for such a feature except for the slightly raised decking aft in the Gokstad ship, and cf. the ‘elevated half-deck’ in the Oseberg ship mentioned by Shetelig and Falk (1937, 260, 270).

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lauðri ‘surf’

lauðr (noun n.): foam, surf

[2] lauðri: ‘laudír’ Hr

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bifðisk ‘shuddered’

2. bifa (verb; °-að-): shudder, tremble

[2] bifðisk: bifðusk E, Hr, bifisk Flat

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goll ‘gold’

gull (noun n.): gold

notes

[2] it rauða goll ‘the red gold’: The reference may be to gilding on the whole ship, or else, as Snorri seems to take it in the Hkr Context (above), specifically to the prow and stern. Skj B adopts an unnecessary emendation here, dismissed by Kock in NN §813.

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it ‘the’

2. inn (art.): the

notes

[2] it rauða goll ‘the red gold’: The reference may be to gilding on the whole ship, or else, as Snorri seems to take it in the Hkr Context (above), specifically to the prow and stern. Skj B adopts an unnecessary emendation here, dismissed by Kock in NN §813.

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rauða ‘red’

rauðr (adj.; °compar. -ari): red

notes

[2] it rauða goll ‘the red gold’: The reference may be to gilding on the whole ship, or else, as Snorri seems to take it in the Hkr Context (above), specifically to the prow and stern. Skj B adopts an unnecessary emendation here, dismissed by Kock in NN §813.

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fast ‘the power’

fastr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): firm, fast < fastligr (adj.)

kennings

fastligr garmr fýris
‘the powerful hound of the fir-tree ’
   = WIND

the powerful hound of the fir-tree → WIND
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ligr ‘ful’

-ligr (adj.): -ly < fastligr (adj.)

[3] ‑ligr: ‑liga Hr, Flat

kennings

fastligr garmr fýris
‘the powerful hound of the fir-tree ’
   = WIND

the powerful hound of the fir-tree → WIND
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hneigði ‘pitched’

hníga (verb): sink, fall

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fúru ‘ship of fir’

1. fura (noun f.): fir vessel

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geystri ‘the rushing’

geystr (adj.): violent

[3] geystri: so 39, F, H, Hr, Flat, ‘geistri’ Kˣ, glæstri E, J2ˣ

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fýris ‘of the fir-tree’

fýri (noun n.): fir-tree

[4] fýris: ‘fyrris’ Flat

kennings

fastligr garmr fýris
‘the powerful hound of the fir-tree ’
   = WIND

the powerful hound of the fir-tree → WIND

notes

[4] garmr fýris ‘hound of the fir-tree [WIND]’: The variant angr fýris ‘grief of fir’ (so H, Hr, Flat) would make equally good sense in the context: cf. Meissner 102 for similar wind-kennings.

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garmr ‘hound’

garmr (noun m.): dog

[4] garmr: gramr 39, E, angr H, Hr, Flat

kennings

fastligr garmr fýris
‘the powerful hound of the fir-tree ’
   = WIND

the powerful hound of the fir-tree → WIND

notes

[4] garmr fýris ‘hound of the fir-tree [WIND]’: The variant angr fýris ‘grief of fir’ (so H, Hr, Flat) would make equally good sense in the context: cf. Meissner 102 for similar wind-kennings.

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ok ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[4] ok: so E, J2ˣ, H, Hr, Flat, um Kˣ, 39, F

notes

[4] ok ‘and’: (a) The reading ok (so E, J2ˣ, H, Hr, Flat) gives good sense, linking lypting ‘after-deck’ (l. 1) with stýri skeiðar ‘warship’s helm’ (l. 4), also in the stern, so that the two complete the cl. ljótu lauðri dreif á ‘foul surf surged against’. Ok stýri skeiðar could be alternatively taken with it rauða goll bifðisk ‘the red gold shuddered’ (l. 2), but ‘helm’ and ‘gold’ are a rather ill-assorted pair. (b) The variant um stýri skeiðar (so , 39, F) would also work: ljótu lauðri dreif útan á lypting um stýri skeiðar ‘foul surf surged in against the after-deck around the helm of the warship’. (c) It is also conceivable that stýri skeiðar is acc. sg. of a kenning referring to Magnús as seafarer (so Fms 12, 131). ‘Agent noun’ kennings with stýrir as base-word and ‘ship’ as determinant are recorded: see LP: stýrir.

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stýri ‘the helm’

stýri (noun n.; °-s; -): rudder

[4] stýri: stýra Flat

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Stirðum ‘sturdy’

stirðr (adj.): stiff

[5] Stirðum: stríðum Flat

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helzt ‘You steered’

halda (verb): hold, keep

[5] helzt (‘hellztu’): hélt H, Hr, héldu Flat

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umb ‘past’

1. um (prep.): about, around

[5] umb: om. F, Flat, fyrir H, Hr

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Stafangr ‘Stavanger’

Stafangr (noun m.): Stavanger

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norðan ‘from the north’

norðan (adv.): from the north

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bifðusk ‘shuddered’

2. bifa (verb; °-að-): shudder, tremble

[6] bifðusk: bifðisk F, Flat

notes

[6] álar bifðusk fyrir ‘currents shuddered in front’: Álar is most logically construed as subject to bifðusk ‘shuddered, foamed’. Ms. ‘fyri’ is here assumed to be the stressed adverb, normalised fyrir, and translated ‘in front (of the advancing ship)’; the spellings ‘fyri’ and ‘firi’ are well attested in early mss as alternatives to ‘fyrir’ etc. Kock (NN §814) suggested (havet bävade) därvid ‘(the sea trembled) at that’.

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fyrir ‘in front’

fyrir (prep.): for, before, because of

[6] fyrir álar (‘fyri alar’): ‘fvri alar’ 39, ‘fyrris alar’ Flat

notes

[6] álar bifðusk fyrir ‘currents shuddered in front’: Álar is most logically construed as subject to bifðusk ‘shuddered, foamed’. Ms. ‘fyri’ is here assumed to be the stressed adverb, normalised fyrir, and translated ‘in front (of the advancing ship)’; the spellings ‘fyri’ and ‘firi’ are well attested in early mss as alternatives to ‘fyrir’ etc. Kock (NN §814) suggested (havet bävade) därvid ‘(the sea trembled) at that’.

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álar ‘currents’

2. áll (noun m.): channel

[6] fyrir álar (‘fyri alar’): ‘fvri alar’ 39, ‘fyrris alar’ Flat

notes

[6] álar bifðusk fyrir ‘currents shuddered in front’: Álar is most logically construed as subject to bifðusk ‘shuddered, foamed’. Ms. ‘fyri’ is here assumed to be the stressed adverb, normalised fyrir, and translated ‘in front (of the advancing ship)’; the spellings ‘fyri’ and ‘firi’ are well attested in early mss as alternatives to ‘fyrir’ etc. Kock (NN §814) suggested (havet bävade) därvid ‘(the sea trembled) at that’.

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uppi ‘aloft’

uppi (adv.): up, up in

notes

[7-8] typpi élmars glóðu uppi glík eldi ‘the mast-heads of the storm-steed [SHIP] glowed aloft like fire’: Like its cognate toppr, typpi probably means both ‘mast-heads’ and ‘forelocks’ and therefore resonates with both levels of imagery: the actual ship and the metaphorical ship-as-steed. The simile of mast-heads glowing like fire may be inspired by the similar image in Sigv ErfÓl 16I. Reinskou (1922, 34-5) pointed out that both skalds are referring to the ship Visundr, and suggested that gilding on the mast-head, since not mentioned in earlier poetry, may have been an innovation in Óláfr helgi’s time. Hougen (1974, 18-19) doubted whether the skalds’ references to gold and gilded prows on ships out at sea are more than a poetic hyperbole, but cf. Encomium Emmae Reginae (ed. Campbell 1998, 12-13) for another C11th example.

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glóðu ‘glowed’

gleðja (verb): gladden, rejoice

notes

[7-8] typpi élmars glóðu uppi glík eldi ‘the mast-heads of the storm-steed [SHIP] glowed aloft like fire’: Like its cognate toppr, typpi probably means both ‘mast-heads’ and ‘forelocks’ and therefore resonates with both levels of imagery: the actual ship and the metaphorical ship-as-steed. The simile of mast-heads glowing like fire may be inspired by the similar image in Sigv ErfÓl 16I. Reinskou (1922, 34-5) pointed out that both skalds are referring to the ship Visundr, and suggested that gilding on the mast-head, since not mentioned in earlier poetry, may have been an innovation in Óláfr helgi’s time. Hougen (1974, 18-19) doubted whether the skalds’ references to gold and gilded prows on ships out at sea are more than a poetic hyperbole, but cf. Encomium Emmae Reginae (ed. Campbell 1998, 12-13) for another C11th example.

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él ‘of the storm’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm < élmarr (noun m.)

kennings

élmars
‘of the storm-steed ’
   = SHIP

the storm-steed → SHIP

notes

[7-8] typpi élmars glóðu uppi glík eldi ‘the mast-heads of the storm-steed [SHIP] glowed aloft like fire’: Like its cognate toppr, typpi probably means both ‘mast-heads’ and ‘forelocks’ and therefore resonates with both levels of imagery: the actual ship and the metaphorical ship-as-steed. The simile of mast-heads glowing like fire may be inspired by the similar image in Sigv ErfÓl 16I. Reinskou (1922, 34-5) pointed out that both skalds are referring to the ship Visundr, and suggested that gilding on the mast-head, since not mentioned in earlier poetry, may have been an innovation in Óláfr helgi’s time. Hougen (1974, 18-19) doubted whether the skalds’ references to gold and gilded prows on ships out at sea are more than a poetic hyperbole, but cf. Encomium Emmae Reginae (ed. Campbell 1998, 12-13) for another C11th example.

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mars ‘steed’

2. marr (noun m.): horse < élmarr (noun m.)

[7] ‑mars: ‘‑mas’ Hr, Flat

kennings

élmars
‘of the storm-steed ’
   = SHIP

the storm-steed → SHIP

notes

[7-8] typpi élmars glóðu uppi glík eldi ‘the mast-heads of the storm-steed [SHIP] glowed aloft like fire’: Like its cognate toppr, typpi probably means both ‘mast-heads’ and ‘forelocks’ and therefore resonates with both levels of imagery: the actual ship and the metaphorical ship-as-steed. The simile of mast-heads glowing like fire may be inspired by the similar image in Sigv ErfÓl 16I. Reinskou (1922, 34-5) pointed out that both skalds are referring to the ship Visundr, and suggested that gilding on the mast-head, since not mentioned in earlier poetry, may have been an innovation in Óláfr helgi’s time. Hougen (1974, 18-19) doubted whether the skalds’ references to gold and gilded prows on ships out at sea are more than a poetic hyperbole, but cf. Encomium Emmae Reginae (ed. Campbell 1998, 12-13) for another C11th example.

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typpi ‘the mast-heads’

typpi (noun n.): [mast-heads]

notes

[7-8] typpi élmars glóðu uppi glík eldi ‘the mast-heads of the storm-steed [SHIP] glowed aloft like fire’: Like its cognate toppr, typpi probably means both ‘mast-heads’ and ‘forelocks’ and therefore resonates with both levels of imagery: the actual ship and the metaphorical ship-as-steed. The simile of mast-heads glowing like fire may be inspired by the similar image in Sigv ErfÓl 16I. Reinskou (1922, 34-5) pointed out that both skalds are referring to the ship Visundr, and suggested that gilding on the mast-head, since not mentioned in earlier poetry, may have been an innovation in Óláfr helgi’s time. Hougen (1974, 18-19) doubted whether the skalds’ references to gold and gilded prows on ships out at sea are more than a poetic hyperbole, but cf. Encomium Emmae Reginae (ed. Campbell 1998, 12-13) for another C11th example.

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eldi ‘fire’

eldr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar): fire

notes

[7-8] typpi élmars glóðu uppi glík eldi ‘the mast-heads of the storm-steed [SHIP] glowed aloft like fire’: Like its cognate toppr, typpi probably means both ‘mast-heads’ and ‘forelocks’ and therefore resonates with both levels of imagery: the actual ship and the metaphorical ship-as-steed. The simile of mast-heads glowing like fire may be inspired by the similar image in Sigv ErfÓl 16I. Reinskou (1922, 34-5) pointed out that both skalds are referring to the ship Visundr, and suggested that gilding on the mast-head, since not mentioned in earlier poetry, may have been an innovation in Óláfr helgi’s time. Hougen (1974, 18-19) doubted whether the skalds’ references to gold and gilded prows on ships out at sea are more than a poetic hyperbole, but cf. Encomium Emmae Reginae (ed. Campbell 1998, 12-13) for another C11th example.

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glík ‘like’

glíkr (adj.; °-jan/-an; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): like, alike

notes

[7-8] typpi élmars glóðu uppi glík eldi ‘the mast-heads of the storm-steed [SHIP] glowed aloft like fire’: Like its cognate toppr, typpi probably means both ‘mast-heads’ and ‘forelocks’ and therefore resonates with both levels of imagery: the actual ship and the metaphorical ship-as-steed. The simile of mast-heads glowing like fire may be inspired by the similar image in Sigv ErfÓl 16I. Reinskou (1922, 34-5) pointed out that both skalds are referring to the ship Visundr, and suggested that gilding on the mast-head, since not mentioned in earlier poetry, may have been an innovation in Óláfr helgi’s time. Hougen (1974, 18-19) doubted whether the skalds’ references to gold and gilded prows on ships out at sea are more than a poetic hyperbole, but cf. Encomium Emmae Reginae (ed. Campbell 1998, 12-13) for another C11th example.

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Danaveldi ‘the realm of the Danes’

danaveldi (noun n.): realm of the Danes

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

See st. 9. In Hkr, st. 10 is preceded by a short description of the ship Visundr: it has more than thirty benches and a gilded bison’s head and tail at prow and stern. In Flat, no comment separates the two sts, but they are followed by a remark that Magnús’s journey is referred to. In H-Hr a brief comment that Magnús sailed south to Denmark links the two.

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