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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Arn Hardr 2II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Arnórr jarlaskáld Þórðarson, Haraldsdrápa 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 262-3.

Arnórr jarlaskáld ÞórðarsonHaraldsdrápa
123

Hjalm ‘helmet’

1. hjalmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): helmet < hjalmárr (noun m.): [helmet-envoys]

kennings

hjalmôru
‘helmet-envoys ’
   = WARRIORS

helmet-envoys → WARRIORS

notes

[1] lét hjalmôru heyra ‘made helmet-envoys [WARRIORS] hear’: The object is the es-cl. depicting Haraldr’s reddening of the sword, and those who hear may be the terrified and doomed enemy, or Haraldr’s own troops. Alternatively, the sense may be that news of Haraldr’s triumphs spread widely (pers. comm. P. J. Frankis gratefully acknowledged).

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ôru ‘envoys’

1. árr (noun m.; °dat. ár; ǽrir/árar, acc. áru): messenger < hjalmárr (noun m.): [helmet-envoys]

kennings

hjalmôru
‘helmet-envoys ’
   = WARRIORS

helmet-envoys → WARRIORS

notes

[1] lét hjalmôru heyra ‘made helmet-envoys [WARRIORS] hear’: The object is the es-cl. depicting Haraldr’s reddening of the sword, and those who hear may be the terrified and doomed enemy, or Haraldr’s own troops. Alternatively, the sense may be that news of Haraldr’s triumphs spread widely (pers. comm. P. J. Frankis gratefully acknowledged).

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lét ‘made’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

[1] lét: so Flat, lézk þú Mork, H, lézk Hr

notes

[1] lét ‘made’: The 2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. ‘letz þu’ in the main ms. Mork is incongruous in the context of a memorial poem, and of the 3rd pers. sg. verbs in the st. — [1] lét hjalmôru heyra ‘made helmet-envoys [WARRIORS] hear’: The object is the es-cl. depicting Haraldr’s reddening of the sword, and those who hear may be the terrified and doomed enemy, or Haraldr’s own troops. Alternatively, the sense may be that news of Haraldr’s triumphs spread widely (pers. comm. P. J. Frankis gratefully acknowledged).

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lét ‘made’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

[1] lét: so Flat, lézk þú Mork, H, lézk Hr

notes

[1] lét ‘made’: The 2nd pers. sg. pret. indic. ‘letz þu’ in the main ms. Mork is incongruous in the context of a memorial poem, and of the 3rd pers. sg. verbs in the st. — [1] lét hjalmôru heyra ‘made helmet-envoys [WARRIORS] hear’: The object is the es-cl. depicting Haraldr’s reddening of the sword, and those who hear may be the terrified and doomed enemy, or Haraldr’s own troops. Alternatively, the sense may be that news of Haraldr’s triumphs spread widely (pers. comm. P. J. Frankis gratefully acknowledged).

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heyra ‘hear’

2. heyra (verb): hear

[1] heyra: heyja Flat

notes

[1] lét hjalmôru heyra ‘made helmet-envoys [WARRIORS] hear’: The object is the es-cl. depicting Haraldr’s reddening of the sword, and those who hear may be the terrified and doomed enemy, or Haraldr’s own troops. Alternatively, the sense may be that news of Haraldr’s triumphs spread widely (pers. comm. P. J. Frankis gratefully acknowledged).

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hizi ‘there’

hizi (adv.): [there]

[2] hizis (‘hiz er’): ‘hitz er’ Flat, H, Hr

notes

[2] hizis ‘that there’: The monosyllabic ms. spellings ‘hiz/hitz’ may reflect a scribal attempt to rid the opening of the l., perhaps written ‘hizi er’, of the superfluous syllable. The syllable is better removed by the use of contracted forms (bragarmál, SnE 1999, 8), here elision of the vowel in es.

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s ‘that’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[2] hizis (‘hiz er’): ‘hitz er’ Flat, H, Hr

notes

[2] hizis ‘that there’: The monosyllabic ms. spellings ‘hiz/hitz’ may reflect a scribal attempt to rid the opening of the l., perhaps written ‘hizi er’, of the superfluous syllable. The syllable is better removed by the use of contracted forms (bragarmál, SnE 1999, 8), here elision of the vowel in es.

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rauð ‘he reddened’

rjóða (verb): to redden

[2] rauð: so all others, rautt Mork

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Nizi ‘the Nissan’

Niz (noun f.): [Nissan]

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tyggi ‘The sovereign’

tyggi (noun m.): prince, sovereign

[3] tyggi: ‘tyrfe’ Hr

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tyrfings ‘of the sword’

tyrfingr (noun m.): [sword]

[3] tyrfings: so all others, ‘tyrfins’ Mork

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mann ‘of men’

maðr (noun m.): man, person < mannfall (noun n.)

[4] mann‑: so all others, man‑ Mork

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Naðrs ‘serpent [ship]’

naðr (noun m.): snake

[5] Naðrs borð: naðr borðs Flat, naðrs borði Hr

notes

[5, 6] nýs naðrs ‘of the new serpent [ship]’: The phrase is particularly apt here, since, according to HSigHkr ch. 59, the winter before the encounter at the Nissan (Niz), Haraldr had a dragon-prowed ship built according to the dimensions of Óláfr Tryggvason’s ship Ormr inn langi ‘the Long Serpent’. In ÞjóðA Sex 14/8, which also concerns the Nissan battle, Haraldr’s ship is again referred to as naðr.

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borð ‘The bulwarks’

borð (noun n.; °-s; -): side, plank, board; table

[5] Naðrs borð: naðr borðs Flat, naðrs borði Hr

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norðan ‘from the north’

norðan (adv.): from the north

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nýs ‘of the new’

nýr (adj.; °nýjan; compar. nýrri, superl. nýjastr): new

notes

[5, 6] nýs naðrs ‘of the new serpent [ship]’: The phrase is particularly apt here, since, according to HSigHkr ch. 59, the winter before the encounter at the Nissan (Niz), Haraldr had a dragon-prowed ship built according to the dimensions of Óláfr Tryggvason’s ship Ormr inn langi ‘the Long Serpent’. In ÞjóðA Sex 14/8, which also concerns the Nissan battle, Haraldr’s ship is again referred to as naðr.

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at ‘at’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[6] at: á Hr

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allvalds ‘of the mighty ruler’

allvaldr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): mighty ruler

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Hallands ‘Halland’

Halland (noun n.): Halland

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skjóta ‘to speed’

skjóta (verb): shoot

[7] skjóta: skuta Hr

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hrafnþarfr ‘lavish to ravens’

hrafnþarfr (adj.): [lavish to ravens]

notes

[8] hrafnþarfr ‘lavish to ravens’: Lit. ‘useful to, supplying the needs of, ravens’, by providing carrion; cf. varghollr ‘gracious to wolves’, in ÞjóðA Sex 13/2 and elsewhere. The adj., a compressed equivalent of Arn Magndr 18/6 -þarfr hrafni ‘generous to the raven’, is a hap. leg.

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stafni ‘prow’

stafn (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): prow

[8] stafni: ‘sta(n)fe’(?) Flat

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In Mork’s and Flat’s account of the battle at the Nissan (Niz) estuary, the Norwegians have cleared the enemy ships and Sveinn Úlfsson (Sven Estridsson) has fled ashore. ÞjóðA Sex 17 and Arn Hardr 2, 3 and 4 are added as an appendix, without any indication of the exact stage in the battle to which they refer. In H-Hr, Hardr 2 is integrated into an account of the Danes scattering after Haraldr boarded Sveinn’s ship, rushing forward and hacking to both sides.

For this battle, see also ÞjóðA Sex 13-18, Stúfr Stúfdr 7, Steinn Nizv, Steinn Úlffl and sts 3-4 below.

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