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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Árm Lv 3II

Judith Jesch (ed.) 2009, ‘Ármóðr, Lausavísur 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 622.


Ermingerði ‘Ermingerðr’

Ermingerðr (noun f.): Ermingerðr


nema ‘unless’

2. nema (conj.): unless

[2] nema: útan Flat


verði ‘comes about’

1. verða (verb): become, be


margr ‘many a man’

2. margr (adj.; °-an): many


sorg ‘grief’

sorg (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): sorrow, affliction

[3] sorg: sút R702ˣ


[3] sorg ‘grief’: The variant sút (with the same meaning) may be preferable in that it avoids the skothending of margr and sorg in a st. with no regular internal rhyme.


svinna ‘the wise lady’

2. svinnr (adj.): wise


aldri ‘never’

aldri (adv.): never


Væra ‘I would be’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[5] Værak (‘væra ec’): væri ek Flat


k ‘’

ek (pron.; °mín, dat. mér, acc. mik): I, me

[5] Værak (‘væra ec’): væri ek Flat


svæfa ‘could sleep’

svæfa (verb): [could sleep]


sýn ‘obvious’

sýnn (adj.): visible


brúðr ‘the lady’

brúðr (noun f.; °brúðar, dat. & acc. brúði; brúðir): woman, bride


[7] brúðr ‘the lady’: This can mean ‘(affianced) bride’, ‘wife’, or ‘woman’ in general. Here, Ármóðr picks up on Rǫgnvaldr’s use of the same word in Rv Lv 16. Although Ermengard of Narbonne’s exact birth date is not known, she would have been in her early twenties at this time and already twice married. However, her first marriage was soon dissolved, her second appears to have been a marriage of convenience, and she never had children (Cheyette 2001, 14-25). She is presented in the saga and in Rv Lv 15 as youthful and as an unmarried woman with loose hair, see Note to Rv Lv 15/6, 7. See also Note to Rv Lv 15 [All].


allfagrt ‘a very attractive’

allfagr (adj.): [a very attractive]


Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Having left Narbonne, Rǫgnvaldr and his poets are sailing in a good wind, and are sitting and drinking, and in good spirits. Rǫgnvaldr, Ármóðr and Oddi each recite a st. containing Ermingerðr’s name.

For other sts with similar content recited on the same occasion, see Rv Lv 16 and Oddi Lv 2. Ármóðr’s st. is the only one to have end-rhyme; cf. Hbreiðm Lv for another st. of the hexasyllabic in minzta runhenda (SnSt Ht 88III, SnE 1999, 35-6).


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