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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Heildr 7VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Heilags anda drápa 7’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 457-8.

Anonymous PoemsHeilags anda drápa
678

vísum ‘righteous’

1. víss (adj.): wise, certain(ly) < réttvíss (adj.)

notes

[1] réttvísum kant, ræsir: Cf. Kálf Kátr 14/7.

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kant ‘you are able’

kunna (verb): know, can, be able

notes

[1] réttvísum kant, ræsir: Cf. Kálf Kátr 14/7.

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ræsir ‘King’

ræsir (noun m.): ruler

kennings

Ræsir regnbýs,
‘King of the rain-dwelling, ’
   = God

the rain-dwelling, → SKY/HEAVEN
King of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[1-2] ræsir regnbýs ‘king of the rain-dwelling’: This expression seems to be a conflation of two God-kennings in Has 28/5-6: ræsir regnhallar ‘king of the rain-hall’ and 59/3-4: ræsir rǫðuls býs ‘king of the sun’s dwelling’. In both kennings, as here, ræsir provides the final stress in the odd-numbered l., while the weather-element whose ‘house’ is heaven provides the hǫfuðstafr. — [1] réttvísum kant, ræsir: Cf. Kálf Kátr 14/7.

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ræsir ‘King’

ræsir (noun m.): ruler

kennings

Ræsir regnbýs,
‘King of the rain-dwelling, ’
   = God

the rain-dwelling, → SKY/HEAVEN
King of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[1-2] ræsir regnbýs ‘king of the rain-dwelling’: This expression seems to be a conflation of two God-kennings in Has 28/5-6: ræsir regnhallar ‘king of the rain-hall’ and 59/3-4: ræsir rǫðuls býs ‘king of the sun’s dwelling’. In both kennings, as here, ræsir provides the final stress in the odd-numbered l., while the weather-element whose ‘house’ is heaven provides the hǫfuðstafr. — [1] réttvísum kant, ræsir: Cf. Kálf Kátr 14/7.

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regn ‘of the rain’

regn (noun n.; °-s; -): rain < regnbýr (noun m.)

kennings

Ræsir regnbýs,
‘King of the rain-dwelling, ’
   = God

the rain-dwelling, → SKY/HEAVEN
King of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[1-2] ræsir regnbýs ‘king of the rain-dwelling’: This expression seems to be a conflation of two God-kennings in Has 28/5-6: ræsir regnhallar ‘king of the rain-hall’ and 59/3-4: ræsir rǫðuls býs ‘king of the sun’s dwelling’. In both kennings, as here, ræsir provides the final stress in the odd-numbered l., while the weather-element whose ‘house’ is heaven provides the hǫfuðstafr.

Close

regn ‘of the rain’

regn (noun n.; °-s; -): rain < regnbýr (noun m.)

kennings

Ræsir regnbýs,
‘King of the rain-dwelling, ’
   = God

the rain-dwelling, → SKY/HEAVEN
King of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[1-2] ræsir regnbýs ‘king of the rain-dwelling’: This expression seems to be a conflation of two God-kennings in Has 28/5-6: ræsir regnhallar ‘king of the rain-hall’ and 59/3-4: ræsir rǫðuls býs ‘king of the sun’s dwelling’. In both kennings, as here, ræsir provides the final stress in the odd-numbered l., while the weather-element whose ‘house’ is heaven provides the hǫfuðstafr.

Close

býs ‘dwelling’

býr (noun m.; °býjar/bjár/bjór/bjárs, dat. -; gen. býa/bjá, dat. bjóm/bjám, acc. býi/býa/bjá): dwelling, down < regnbýr (noun m.)

kennings

Ræsir regnbýs,
‘King of the rain-dwelling, ’
   = God

the rain-dwelling, → SKY/HEAVEN
King of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[1-2] ræsir regnbýs ‘king of the rain-dwelling’: This expression seems to be a conflation of two God-kennings in Has 28/5-6: ræsir regnhallar ‘king of the rain-hall’ and 59/3-4: ræsir rǫðuls býs ‘king of the sun’s dwelling’. In both kennings, as here, ræsir provides the final stress in the odd-numbered l., while the weather-element whose ‘house’ is heaven provides the hǫfuðstafr.

Close

býs ‘dwelling’

býr (noun m.; °býjar/bjár/bjór/bjárs, dat. -; gen. býa/bjá, dat. bjóm/bjám, acc. býi/býa/bjá): dwelling, down < regnbýr (noun m.)

kennings

Ræsir regnbýs,
‘King of the rain-dwelling, ’
   = God

the rain-dwelling, → SKY/HEAVEN
King of the SKY/HEAVEN → God

notes

[1-2] ræsir regnbýs ‘king of the rain-dwelling’: This expression seems to be a conflation of two God-kennings in Has 28/5-6: ræsir regnhallar ‘king of the rain-hall’ and 59/3-4: ræsir rǫðuls býs ‘king of the sun’s dwelling’. In both kennings, as here, ræsir provides the final stress in the odd-numbered l., while the weather-element whose ‘house’ is heaven provides the hǫfuðstafr.

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svát ‘so that’

svát (conj.): so that, so as

[3] svát: ‘[...]t’ all

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skynjar ‘understands’

skynja (verb): learn, understand

[3] skynjar: ‘skynia’ all

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vakr ‘the watchful’

2. vakr (adj.): awake

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herr ‘army’

herr (noun m.; °-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra): army, host

[4] herr með trú: ‘her med [...]’ B, 399a‑bˣ, ‘her m[...] tru’ BRydberg, BFJ

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með ‘with’

með (prep.): with

[4] herr með trú: ‘her med [...]’ B, 399a‑bˣ, ‘her m[...] tru’ BRydberg, BFJ

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trú ‘faith’

trú (noun f.; °-ar): faith, belief

[4] herr með trú: ‘her med [...]’ B, 399a‑bˣ, ‘her m[...] tru’ BRydberg, BFJ

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spakri ‘serene’

spakr (adj.): quiet, gentle, wise

[4] spakri: so 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, BFJ, ‘spa[...]ri’ B

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fremsk ‘gains honour’

fremja (verb): advance, perform

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[1-4]: Rydberg takes vakr (l. 4) as an adj. meaning ‘watchful, alert’, qualifying ræsir regnbýs ‘king of the rain-dwelling [SKY/HEAVEN > = God]’. He reconstructs bezt at the beginning of l. 3. His prose arrangement is Vakr ræsir regnbýs, þú kannt bezt skynja réttvísum hugum hér með spakri trú [ok] lýsa vizku veg ‘Watchful king of the rain-dwelling, you are best able to understand righteous minds here with unassuming faith [and] illuminate the way of wisdom’. This edn adopts Finnur Jónsson’s arrangement in Skj B (also Skald), kant lýsa réttvísum hugum, svát vakr herr skynjar ‘you are able to illuminate righteous minds, so that the watchful army understands ...’, which requires construal of B’s her as m. herr ‘army’ and emendation of skynja to skynjar, 3rd pers. sg. pres. indic. of skynja ‘to understand’. — [5-8]: Rydberg and Finnur Jónsson assume skrauti dat. sg. of n. skraut ‘ornament’ (l. 8) to be part of an intercalated phrase helgat lið fremsk skrauti, which Finnur (Skj B) paraphrases de hellige mænd iføres skrud ‘the holy people dress in finery’. The significance of this phrase is not altogether clear and the interpretation seems inappropriate in context. Kock (NN §1406) suggests that grandi (l. 5) and djǫfuls skrauti (l. 8) be interpreted as parallel expressions, and that lymsku be taken as gen. sg. of f. lymska ‘treachery’, functioning adjectivally and qualifying lífs braut (l. 8) ‘life’s way of treachery, life’s treacherous way’. However, lymsku is more easily construed as an adj., lymskr ‘wily, cunning, treacherous’, here understood as the strong dat. sg. n. form, qualifying skrauti.

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