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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Heildr 3VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Heilags anda drápa 3’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 453-4.

Anonymous PoemsHeilags anda drápa
234

guð ‘God’

1. guð (noun m.; °***guðrs, guðis, gus): (Christian) God

notes

[2] guð fögrum: B’s ‘fagra’ must be emended to fögrum after blása (which may take acc. or dat.) to provide a dat. antecedent for þeim er (l. 3). Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emends to guðs fǫgrum, construing the first helmingr: blést vitr fǫgrum spektaranda, þeims betrir vandan vísdóm hugfyldra heilagra hǫlda guðs ‘You, wise, exhaled the beautiful spirit of understanding, the one which improves the painstaking wisdom of courageous, holy men of God’.

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fögrum ‘beautiful’

fagr (adj.; °fagran; compar. fegri, superl. fegrstr): fair, beautiful

[2] fögrum: fagra B, 399a‑bˣ

notes

[2] guð fögrum: B’s ‘fagra’ must be emended to fögrum after blása (which may take acc. or dat.) to provide a dat. antecedent for þeim er (l. 3). Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emends to guðs fǫgrum, construing the first helmingr: blést vitr fǫgrum spektaranda, þeims betrir vandan vísdóm hugfyldra heilagra hǫlda guðs ‘You, wise, exhaled the beautiful spirit of understanding, the one which improves the painstaking wisdom of courageous, holy men of God’.

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vitr ‘Wise’

vitr (adj.): wise

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vandan ‘hard-won’

vandr (adj.): difficult

notes

[4] vandan ‘hard-won’: The adj. vandr is usually translated ‘difficult, painstaking’, and derives from the verb vanda ‘to make elaborately, take care and pains in (a work or choice)’ (LP: vanda). The reference may be to worldly understanding, which is utterly ineffectual unless bolstered by the Holy Spirit (see, for example, Eph. I.17-22, Col. I.9). Vandr is translated ‘hard-won’ here, in an attempt to exploit connotations of both the difficulty and the skill of the endeavour.

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spektar ‘of understanding’

spekð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): wisdom < spekðarandi (noun m.)

notes

[4] spektaranda ‘spirit of understanding’: I.e. andi spektar. Cf. Eph. I.17, where the Holy Spirit is described as spiritus sapientiae et revelationis ‘the spirit of wisdom and revelation’. This is a deliberate echo of the characterisation of the Spirit in Isa. XI.2: spiritus sapientiae et intellectus spiritus consilii et fortitudinis spiritus scientiae et pietatis ‘the spirit of wisdom, and of understanding, the spirit of counsel, and of fortitude, the spirit of knowledge, and of godliness’.

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anda ‘spirit’

andi (noun m.; °-a; -ar): spirit, soul < spekðarandi (noun m.)

notes

[4] spektaranda ‘spirit of understanding’: I.e. andi spektar. Cf. Eph. I.17, where the Holy Spirit is described as spiritus sapientiae et revelationis ‘the spirit of wisdom and revelation’. This is a deliberate echo of the characterisation of the Spirit in Isa. XI.2: spiritus sapientiae et intellectus spiritus consilii et fortitudinis spiritus scientiae et pietatis ‘the spirit of wisdom, and of understanding, the spirit of counsel, and of fortitude, the spirit of knowledge, and of godliness’.

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hefr ‘has’

hafa (verb): have

notes

[5-8] hefr grænkat geðfjöll snjöllu liði blómi siðferðar ‘has made green the mind-mountains for wise people with the bloom of moral conduct’: Morally upright behaviour is often described as the ‘fruit’ of the Holy Spirit in the New Testament (see, for example, Gal. V.22-3; Phil. I.11; Col. I.10; Jas III.17). It is interesting to compare the Postcommunion Sentence of the Mass for Pentecost: Sancti Spiritus, Domine, corda nostra mundet infusio: et sui roris intima aspersione fœcundet ‘May the infusion of the Holy Spirit purify our hearts, O Lord, and make them fruitful by the inward sprinkling of His heavenly dew’ (Lefebure 1924, 970).

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grænkat ‘made green’

grœnka (verb): [made green]

notes

[5-8] hefr grænkat geðfjöll snjöllu liði blómi siðferðar ‘has made green the mind-mountains for wise people with the bloom of moral conduct’: Morally upright behaviour is often described as the ‘fruit’ of the Holy Spirit in the New Testament (see, for example, Gal. V.22-3; Phil. I.11; Col. I.10; Jas III.17). It is interesting to compare the Postcommunion Sentence of the Mass for Pentecost: Sancti Spiritus, Domine, corda nostra mundet infusio: et sui roris intima aspersione fœcundet ‘May the infusion of the Holy Spirit purify our hearts, O Lord, and make them fruitful by the inward sprinkling of His heavenly dew’ (Lefebure 1924, 970).

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geð ‘the mind’

geð (noun n.): mind < geðfjall (noun n.)

kennings

geðfjöll
‘the mind-mountains ’
   = SOULS

the mind-mountains → SOULS

notes

[5-8] hefr grænkat geðfjöll snjöllu liði blómi siðferðar ‘has made green the mind-mountains for wise people with the bloom of moral conduct’: Morally upright behaviour is often described as the ‘fruit’ of the Holy Spirit in the New Testament (see, for example, Gal. V.22-3; Phil. I.11; Col. I.10; Jas III.17). It is interesting to compare the Postcommunion Sentence of the Mass for Pentecost: Sancti Spiritus, Domine, corda nostra mundet infusio: et sui roris intima aspersione fœcundet ‘May the infusion of the Holy Spirit purify our hearts, O Lord, and make them fruitful by the inward sprinkling of His heavenly dew’ (Lefebure 1924, 970). — [6] geðfjöll ‘mind-mountains [SOULS]’: Cf. the similar kenning skóg hu*gar ‘forest of the mind [SOUL]’ in 5/2.

Close

geð ‘the mind’

geð (noun n.): mind < geðfjall (noun n.)

kennings

geðfjöll
‘the mind-mountains ’
   = SOULS

the mind-mountains → SOULS

notes

[5-8] hefr grænkat geðfjöll snjöllu liði blómi siðferðar ‘has made green the mind-mountains for wise people with the bloom of moral conduct’: Morally upright behaviour is often described as the ‘fruit’ of the Holy Spirit in the New Testament (see, for example, Gal. V.22-3; Phil. I.11; Col. I.10; Jas III.17). It is interesting to compare the Postcommunion Sentence of the Mass for Pentecost: Sancti Spiritus, Domine, corda nostra mundet infusio: et sui roris intima aspersione fœcundet ‘May the infusion of the Holy Spirit purify our hearts, O Lord, and make them fruitful by the inward sprinkling of His heavenly dew’ (Lefebure 1924, 970). — [6] geðfjöll ‘mind-mountains [SOULS]’: Cf. the similar kenning skóg hu*gar ‘forest of the mind [SOUL]’ in 5/2.

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fjöll ‘mountains’

1. fjall (noun n.): mountain < geðfjall (noun n.)

kennings

geðfjöll
‘the mind-mountains ’
   = SOULS

the mind-mountains → SOULS

notes

[5-8] hefr grænkat geðfjöll snjöllu liði blómi siðferðar ‘has made green the mind-mountains for wise people with the bloom of moral conduct’: Morally upright behaviour is often described as the ‘fruit’ of the Holy Spirit in the New Testament (see, for example, Gal. V.22-3; Phil. I.11; Col. I.10; Jas III.17). It is interesting to compare the Postcommunion Sentence of the Mass for Pentecost: Sancti Spiritus, Domine, corda nostra mundet infusio: et sui roris intima aspersione fœcundet ‘May the infusion of the Holy Spirit purify our hearts, O Lord, and make them fruitful by the inward sprinkling of His heavenly dew’ (Lefebure 1924, 970). — [6] geðfjöll ‘mind-mountains [SOULS]’: Cf. the similar kenning skóg hu*gar ‘forest of the mind [SOUL]’ in 5/2.

Close

fjöll ‘mountains’

1. fjall (noun n.): mountain < geðfjall (noun n.)

kennings

geðfjöll
‘the mind-mountains ’
   = SOULS

the mind-mountains → SOULS

notes

[5-8] hefr grænkat geðfjöll snjöllu liði blómi siðferðar ‘has made green the mind-mountains for wise people with the bloom of moral conduct’: Morally upright behaviour is often described as the ‘fruit’ of the Holy Spirit in the New Testament (see, for example, Gal. V.22-3; Phil. I.11; Col. I.10; Jas III.17). It is interesting to compare the Postcommunion Sentence of the Mass for Pentecost: Sancti Spiritus, Domine, corda nostra mundet infusio: et sui roris intima aspersione fœcundet ‘May the infusion of the Holy Spirit purify our hearts, O Lord, and make them fruitful by the inward sprinkling of His heavenly dew’ (Lefebure 1924, 970). — [6] geðfjöll ‘mind-mountains [SOULS]’: Cf. the similar kenning skóg hu*gar ‘forest of the mind [SOUL]’ in 5/2.

Close

liði ‘people’

lið (noun n.; °-s; -): retinue, troop

notes

[5-8] hefr grænkat geðfjöll snjöllu liði blómi siðferðar ‘has made green the mind-mountains for wise people with the bloom of moral conduct’: Morally upright behaviour is often described as the ‘fruit’ of the Holy Spirit in the New Testament (see, for example, Gal. V.22-3; Phil. I.11; Col. I.10; Jas III.17). It is interesting to compare the Postcommunion Sentence of the Mass for Pentecost: Sancti Spiritus, Domine, corda nostra mundet infusio: et sui roris intima aspersione fœcundet ‘May the infusion of the Holy Spirit purify our hearts, O Lord, and make them fruitful by the inward sprinkling of His heavenly dew’ (Lefebure 1924, 970).

Close

snjöllu ‘for wise’

snjallr (adj.): quick, resourceful, bold

notes

[5-8] hefr grænkat geðfjöll snjöllu liði blómi siðferðar ‘has made green the mind-mountains for wise people with the bloom of moral conduct’: Morally upright behaviour is often described as the ‘fruit’ of the Holy Spirit in the New Testament (see, for example, Gal. V.22-3; Phil. I.11; Col. I.10; Jas III.17). It is interesting to compare the Postcommunion Sentence of the Mass for Pentecost: Sancti Spiritus, Domine, corda nostra mundet infusio: et sui roris intima aspersione fœcundet ‘May the infusion of the Holy Spirit purify our hearts, O Lord, and make them fruitful by the inward sprinkling of His heavenly dew’ (Lefebure 1924, 970).

Close

tryggva ‘true’

tryggr (adj.; °tryggan/tryggvan; compar. -ari/-vari; superl. -jastr/-astr): loyal

notes

[7] tryggva (f. sg. nom.) ‘true’: Here construed with sú einkagjöf (l. 5) as a weak adj. This requires no emendation. Both Skj B and Skald emend, Finnur Jónsson to tryggu (n. dat. sg.) agreeing with blómi, Kock to tryggra, m. gen. pl. agreeing with seggja, producing the intercalary cl. trú tryggra seggja erat tóm ‘the faith of reliable men is not empty’.

Close

sið ‘of moral’

siðr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -/-i; -ir, acc. -u): faith, morals < siðferð (noun f.)

notes

[5-8] hefr grænkat geðfjöll snjöllu liði blómi siðferðar ‘has made green the mind-mountains for wise people with the bloom of moral conduct’: Morally upright behaviour is often described as the ‘fruit’ of the Holy Spirit in the New Testament (see, for example, Gal. V.22-3; Phil. I.11; Col. I.10; Jas III.17). It is interesting to compare the Postcommunion Sentence of the Mass for Pentecost: Sancti Spiritus, Domine, corda nostra mundet infusio: et sui roris intima aspersione fœcundet ‘May the infusion of the Holy Spirit purify our hearts, O Lord, and make them fruitful by the inward sprinkling of His heavenly dew’ (Lefebure 1924, 970).

Close

ferðar ‘conduct’

ferð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-arMork 196¹²)): host, journey < siðferð (noun f.)

notes

[5-8] hefr grænkat geðfjöll snjöllu liði blómi siðferðar ‘has made green the mind-mountains for wise people with the bloom of moral conduct’: Morally upright behaviour is often described as the ‘fruit’ of the Holy Spirit in the New Testament (see, for example, Gal. V.22-3; Phil. I.11; Col. I.10; Jas III.17). It is interesting to compare the Postcommunion Sentence of the Mass for Pentecost: Sancti Spiritus, Domine, corda nostra mundet infusio: et sui roris intima aspersione fœcundet ‘May the infusion of the Holy Spirit purify our hearts, O Lord, and make them fruitful by the inward sprinkling of His heavenly dew’ (Lefebure 1924, 970).

Close

blómi ‘with the bloom’

blóm (noun n.; °-s; -): flower

notes

[5-8] hefr grænkat geðfjöll snjöllu liði blómi siðferðar ‘has made green the mind-mountains for wise people with the bloom of moral conduct’: Morally upright behaviour is often described as the ‘fruit’ of the Holy Spirit in the New Testament (see, for example, Gal. V.22-3; Phil. I.11; Col. I.10; Jas III.17). It is interesting to compare the Postcommunion Sentence of the Mass for Pentecost: Sancti Spiritus, Domine, corda nostra mundet infusio: et sui roris intima aspersione fœcundet ‘May the infusion of the Holy Spirit purify our hearts, O Lord, and make them fruitful by the inward sprinkling of His heavenly dew’ (Lefebure 1924, 970).

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