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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon (TGT) 19III

Tarrin Wills (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Lausavísur, Stanzas from the Third Grammatical Treatise 19’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 550.

Anonymous LausavísurStanzas from the Third Grammatical Treatise

text and translation

Haldi hringtǫpuð        hefi ok varðveiti
styrki ok staðfesti        stýrir himinríkis.

{Stýrir himinríkis} haldi, hefi ok varðveiti, styrki ok staðfesti {hringtǫpuð}.
‘May the controller of the kingdom of heaven [= God] support, raise and preserve, strengthen and confirm the ring-destroyer [GENEROUS MAN].

notes and context

Cited as an example of hypozeuxis (‘ypozeusis’), i.e. the use of many verbs with a single subject (TGT 1927, 67): Ypozeusis gefr mǫrg orð einni persónuHypozeuxis connects many verbs with one person [subject]’.

Hypozeuxis is illustrated here by the use of one subject (stýrir himinrikis ‘controller of the kingdom of heaven’) with multiple verbs (haldi ‘support’, hefi ‘raise’, etc.). — The second of three málaháttr stanzas about a ruler (the others being st. 18 and Ólhv Frag 6), here identifiable as a Christian one. Unlike Anon (TGT) 18 and Ólhv Frag 6, this fragment appears to be in the form of a prayer.



Text is based on reconstruction from the base text and variant apparatus and may contain alternative spellings and other normalisations not visible in the manuscript text. Transcriptions may not have been checked and should not be cited.

editions and texts

Skj: Anonyme digte og vers [XII], C. Vers om ubestemmelige personer og begivenheder 7: AI, 597, BI, 598, Skald I, 291; SnE 1818, 323, SnE 1848, 191, SnE 1848-87, II, 144-5, 418, III, 146-7, TGT 1884, 24, 94, 206, TGT 1927, 68, 102.


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