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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hfr Óldr 5I

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Óláfsdrápa 5’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 397.

Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld ÓttarssonÓláfsdrápa
4x56

Gerðisk ungr við Engla
ofvægr konungr bægja;
naddskúrar réð nœrir
Norðimbra sá morði.
Barði brezkrar jarðar
byggvendr, en hjó tyggi
— grôðr þvarr geira hríðar
gjóði — kumrskar þjóðir.

Ungr, ofvægr konungr gerðisk bægja við Engla; {sá nœrir {naddskúrar}} réð morði Norðimbra. Tyggi barði byggvendr brezkrar jarðar en hjó kumrskar þjóðir; grôðr þvarr {gjóði {hríðar geira}}.

The young, overwhelming king proceeded to contend against the English; {that nourisher {of the missile-shower}} [BATTLE > WARRIOR] determined the killing of the Northumbrians. The prince beat the inhabitants of the British land and cut down the Cumbric peoples; hunger diminished {for the osprey {of the storm of spears}} [BATTLE > RAVEN/EAGLE].

Mss: (150r-v) (ll. 1-4), (150v) (ll. 5-8), 39(6ra) (ll. 1-4), 39(6rb) (ll. 5-8), F(25ra) (ll. 1-4), F(25ra) (ll. 5-8), J1ˣ(89r) (ll. 1-4), J1ˣ(89r) (ll. 5-8) (Hkr); 61(16vb-17ra) (ll. 1-4), 61(17ra) (ll. 5-8), 53(15rb) (ll. 1-4), 53(15rb) (ll. 5-8), 54(12rb) (ll. 1-4), 54(12rb) (ll. 5-8), Bb(22va) (ll. 1-4), Bb(22va) (ll. 5-8), 62(9va) (ll. 1-4), Flat(16ra) (ll. 1-4) (ÓT); FskBˣ(33r-v), FskAˣ(121) (Fsk); 310(98) (ÓTOdd)

Readings: [1] Gerðisk: gerði Flat;    ungr: om. J1ˣ    [2] ofvægr: óvæginn 53, óvægr Bb, ‘of væggr’ or ‘of væghr’ FskAˣ;    bægja: ‘bæggia’ FskAˣ    [3] ‑skúrar réð nœrir: ‘skar rei[...]ęr’ 62, ‘skarr hlod nærre’ Flat    [4] sá: því J1ˣ, 61, 53, 54, Bb, 62, 310, þar Flat;    morði: mundi 62, timbri Flat    [5] brezkrar: ‘breskar’ 39, Bb, ‘brazkrar’ FskAˣ;    jarðar: jarðir 39    [6] en: so 39, J1ˣ, 310, ok Kˣ, 61, enn F, FskBˣ, FskAˣ, er 53, 54, Bb    [7] þvarr: hjó 61    [8] gjóði: gjóðs FskBˣ;    kumrskar: ‘kvmskrar’ F, ‘kyrmskrar’ J1ˣ, valskar 61, 53, vaskar 54, Bb, ‘lumbærskar’ FskBˣ;    þjóðir: þjóðar F, J1ˣ

Editions: Skj AI, 158-9, Skj BI, 150, Skald I, 81-2; Hkr 1893-1901, I, 307-8, IV, 85-6, ÍF 26, 264-5, Hkr 1991, 177-8 (ÓTHkr ch. 30), F 1871, 114; ÓT 1958-2000, I, 160-1 (ch. 77), Flat 1860-8, I, 120; Fsk 1902-3, 110-11 (ch. 21), ÍF 29, 143-4 (ch. 23); ÓTOdd 1932, 248.

Context: See Introduction.

Notes: [All]: The pairing of helmingar follows Fsk and ms. 310; see Introduction. In Hkr and ÓT, st. 5/1-4 (beginning Gerðisk) + st. 6/7-8 (Eyddi), 5-6 (Gerði) form a stanza, and st. 6/1-4 (Ýdrógar) + st. 5/5-8 (Barði) form a stanza. — [1, 2] bægja við Engla ‘contend against the English’: Dative would normally be expected with bægja við ‘push, (re)move, hinder’, and Finnur Jónsson emends to Englum in Skj B, but acc. pl. Engla is the reading of all mss, and acc. is supported by the common bægjask við ‘contend against’ + acc. — [3] naddskúrar ‘of the missile-shower [BATTLE]’: Naddr m. is ‘nail, stud’, hence perhaps a spear (LP: naddr); Meissner 184 counts this among terms for weapons in general. — [4] ‘that’: The m. nom. sg. demonstrative article is retained here. It is detached from the rest of the noun phrase, naddskúrar nœrir ‘nourisher of the missile-shower [BATTLE > WARRIOR]’, which makes it the lectio difficilior. The variant n. dat. sg. því could have been altered from to match the immediately following morði ‘killing’. — [5, 8] brezkrar jarðar … kumrskar þjóðir ‘of the British land … the Cumbric peoples’: Both terms are somewhat elusive, but typically refer to the Celtic, Brittonic-speaking peoples of Strathclyde (now south-west Scotland), Cumbria (north-west England) and Wales; see Poole 1987, 292-8 for a review of the usage of Bretar/brezkr in Old Norse sources. The identification of the peoples mentioned here is not helped by the uncertainty over the ordering of the stanzas (see Introduction).

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  3. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  4. Meissner = Meissner, Rudolf. 1921. Die Kenningar der Skalden: Ein Beitrag zur skaldischen Poetik. Rheinische Beiträge und Hülfsbücher zur germanischen Philologie und Volkskunde 1. Bonn and Leipzig: Schroeder. Rpt. 1984. Hildesheim etc.: Olms.
  5. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  6. Flat 1860-8 = Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and C. R. Unger, eds. 1860-8. Flateyjarbók. En samling af norske konge-sagaer med indskudte mindre fortællinger om begivenheder i og udenfor Norge samt annaler. 3 vols. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  7. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  8. Hkr 1893-1901 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1893-1901. Heimskringla: Nóregs konunga sǫgur af Snorri Sturluson. 4 vols. SUGNL 23. Copenhagen: Møller.
  9. Hkr 1991 = Bergljót S. Kristjánsdóttir et al., eds. 1991. Heimskringla. 3 vols. Reykjavík: Mál og menning.
  10. F 1871 = Unger, C. R., ed. 1871. Fríssbók: Codex Frisianus. En samling af norske konge-sagaer. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  11. Poole, Russell. 1987. ‘Skaldic Verse and Anglo-Saxon History: Some Aspects of the Period 1009-1016’. Speculum 62, 265-98.
  12. ÍF 29 = Ágrip af Nóregskonunga sǫgum; Fagrskinna—Nóregs konungatal. Ed. Bjarni Einarsson. 1985.
  13. ÓT 1958-2000 = Ólafur Halldórsson, ed. 1958-2000. Saga Óláfs Tryggvasonar en mesta. 3 vols. EA A 1-3. Copenhagen: Munksgaard (Reitzel).
  14. Internal references
  15. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Heimskringla (Hkr)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  16. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘Fagrskinna (Fsk)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clix-clxi.
  17. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘The Greatest Saga of Óláfr Tryggvason / Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar in mesta (ÓT)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clxiii-clxvi.
  18. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar by Oddr Snorrason (ÓTOdd)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clxxiv-clxxv.
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