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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hfr Óldr 5I

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Óláfsdrápa 5’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 397.

Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld ÓttarssonÓláfsdrápa
4x56

Gerðisk ‘proceeded to’

1. gera (verb): do, make

[1] Gerðisk: gerði Flat

Close

ungr ‘The young’

ungr (adj.): young

[1] ungr: om. J1ˣ

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við ‘against’

2. við (prep.): with, against

notes

[1, 2] bægja við Engla ‘contend against the English’: Dative would normally be expected with bægja við ‘push, (re)move, hinder’, and Finnur Jónsson emends to Englum in Skj B, but acc. pl. Engla is the reading of all mss, and acc. is supported by the common bægjask við ‘contend against’ + acc.

Close

Engla ‘the English’

englar (noun m.): English people

notes

[1, 2] bægja við Engla ‘contend against the English’: Dative would normally be expected with bægja við ‘push, (re)move, hinder’, and Finnur Jónsson emends to Englum in Skj B, but acc. pl. Engla is the reading of all mss, and acc. is supported by the common bægjask við ‘contend against’ + acc.

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óvægr ‘’

óvægr (adj.)

Close

væggr ‘’

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ofvægr ‘overwhelming’

ofvægr (adj.): invincible, overwhelming

[2] ofvægr: óvæginn 53, óvægr Bb, ‘of væggr’ or ‘of væghr’ FskAˣ

Close

bægja ‘contend’

2. bægja (verb; °-gð-): contend

[2] bægja: ‘bæggia’ FskAˣ

notes

[1, 2] bægja við Engla ‘contend against the English’: Dative would normally be expected with bægja við ‘push, (re)move, hinder’, and Finnur Jónsson emends to Englum in Skj B, but acc. pl. Engla is the reading of all mss, and acc. is supported by the common bægjask við ‘contend against’ + acc.

Close

nadd ‘of the missile’

naddr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): spear, point < naddskúr (noun f.): [point-shower]naddr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): spear, point < naddskar (noun n.): [point-shower]

kennings

sá nœrir naddskúrar
‘that nourisher of the missile-shower ’
   = WARRIOR

the missile-shower → BATTLE
that nourisher of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[3] naddskúrar ‘of the missile-shower [BATTLE]’: Naddr m. is ‘nail, stud’, hence perhaps a spear (LP: naddr); Meissner 184 counts this among terms for weapons in general.

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nadd ‘of the missile’

naddr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): spear, point < naddskúr (noun f.): [point-shower]naddr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): spear, point < naddskar (noun n.): [point-shower]

kennings

sá nœrir naddskúrar
‘that nourisher of the missile-shower ’
   = WARRIOR

the missile-shower → BATTLE
that nourisher of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[3] naddskúrar ‘of the missile-shower [BATTLE]’: Naddr m. is ‘nail, stud’, hence perhaps a spear (LP: naddr); Meissner 184 counts this among terms for weapons in general.

Close

skúrar ‘shower’

1. skúr (noun f.; °; -ir): shower < naddskúr (noun f.): [point-shower]

[3] ‑skúrar réð nœrir: ‘skar rei[...]ęr’ 62, ‘skarr hlod nærre’ Flat

kennings

sá nœrir naddskúrar
‘that nourisher of the missile-shower ’
   = WARRIOR

the missile-shower → BATTLE
that nourisher of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[3] naddskúrar ‘of the missile-shower [BATTLE]’: Naddr m. is ‘nail, stud’, hence perhaps a spear (LP: naddr); Meissner 184 counts this among terms for weapons in general.

Close

skúrar ‘shower’

1. skúr (noun f.; °; -ir): shower < naddskúr (noun f.): [point-shower]

[3] ‑skúrar réð nœrir: ‘skar rei[...]ęr’ 62, ‘skarr hlod nærre’ Flat

kennings

sá nœrir naddskúrar
‘that nourisher of the missile-shower ’
   = WARRIOR

the missile-shower → BATTLE
that nourisher of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[3] naddskúrar ‘of the missile-shower [BATTLE]’: Naddr m. is ‘nail, stud’, hence perhaps a spear (LP: naddr); Meissner 184 counts this among terms for weapons in general.

Close

réð ‘determined’

ráða (verb): advise, rule, interpret, decide

[3] ‑skúrar réð nœrir: ‘skar rei[...]ęr’ 62, ‘skarr hlod nærre’ Flat

Close

nœrir ‘nourisher’

nœrir (noun m.): nourisher

[3] ‑skúrar réð nœrir: ‘skar rei[...]ęr’ 62, ‘skarr hlod nærre’ Flat

kennings

sá nœrir naddskúrar
‘that nourisher of the missile-shower ’
   = WARRIOR

the missile-shower → BATTLE
that nourisher of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

Norðimbra ‘of the Northumbrians’

norðymbri (noun m.): [Northumbrians]

Close

‘that’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

[4] sá: því J1ˣ, 61, 53, 54, Bb, 62, 310, þar Flat

kennings

sá nœrir naddskúrar
‘that nourisher of the missile-shower ’
   = WARRIOR

the missile-shower → BATTLE
that nourisher of the BATTLE → WARRIOR

notes

[4] ‘that’: The m. nom. sg. demonstrative article is retained here. It is detached from the rest of the noun phrase, naddskúrar nœrir ‘nourisher of the missile-shower [BATTLE > WARRIOR]’, which makes it the lectio difficilior. The variant n. dat. sg. því could have been altered from to match the immediately following morði ‘killing’.

Close

morði ‘the killing’

1. morð (noun n.; °-s; -): killing, battle

[4] morði: mundi 62, timbri Flat

Close

brazkrar ‘’

Close

brezkrar ‘of the British’

brezkr (adj.): British

[5] brezkrar: ‘breskar’ 39, Bb, ‘brazkrar’ FskAˣ

notes

[5, 8] brezkrar jarðar … kumrskar þjóðir ‘of the British land … the Cumbric peoples’: Both terms are somewhat elusive, but typically refer to the Celtic, Brittonic-speaking peoples of Strathclyde (now south-west Scotland), Cumbria (north-west England) and Wales; see Poole 1987, 292-8 for a review of the usage of Bretar/brezkr in Old Norse sources. The identification of the peoples mentioned here is not helped by the uncertainty over the ordering of the stanzas (see Introduction).

Close

jarðar ‘land’

jǫrð (noun f.; °jarðar, dat. -u; jarðir/jarðar(DN I (1367) 304Š)): ground, earth

[5] jarðar: jarðir 39

notes

[5, 8] brezkrar jarðar … kumrskar þjóðir ‘of the British land … the Cumbric peoples’: Both terms are somewhat elusive, but typically refer to the Celtic, Brittonic-speaking peoples of Strathclyde (now south-west Scotland), Cumbria (north-west England) and Wales; see Poole 1987, 292-8 for a review of the usage of Bretar/brezkr in Old Norse sources. The identification of the peoples mentioned here is not helped by the uncertainty over the ordering of the stanzas (see Introduction).

Close

en ‘and’

2. en (conj.): but, and

[6] en: so 39, J1ˣ, 310, ok Kˣ, 61, enn F, FskBˣ, FskAˣ, er 53, 54, Bb

Close

þvarr ‘diminished’

1. þverra (verb): diminish

[7] þvarr: hjó 61

Close

geira ‘of spears’

geirr (noun m.): spear

kennings

gjóði hríðar geira.
‘for the osprey of the storm of spears.’
   = RAVEN/EAGLE

the storm of spears. → BATTLE
for the osprey of the BATTLE → RAVEN/EAGLE
Close

geira ‘of spears’

geirr (noun m.): spear

kennings

gjóði hríðar geira.
‘for the osprey of the storm of spears.’
   = RAVEN/EAGLE

the storm of spears. → BATTLE
for the osprey of the BATTLE → RAVEN/EAGLE
Close

hríðar ‘of the storm’

hríð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time, storm

kennings

gjóði hríðar geira.
‘for the osprey of the storm of spears.’
   = RAVEN/EAGLE

the storm of spears. → BATTLE
for the osprey of the BATTLE → RAVEN/EAGLE
Close

hríðar ‘of the storm’

hríð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): time, storm

kennings

gjóði hríðar geira.
‘for the osprey of the storm of spears.’
   = RAVEN/EAGLE

the storm of spears. → BATTLE
for the osprey of the BATTLE → RAVEN/EAGLE
Close

gjóði ‘the osprey’

gjóðr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): osprey

[8] gjóði: gjóðs FskBˣ

kennings

gjóði hríðar geira.
‘for the osprey of the storm of spears.’
   = RAVEN/EAGLE

the storm of spears. → BATTLE
for the osprey of the BATTLE → RAVEN/EAGLE
Close

lumbærskar ‘’

Close

vaskar ‘’

Close

kyrmskrar ‘’

Close

kumskrar ‘’

Close

kumrskar ‘the Cumbric’

kumrskr (adj.): [Cumbric]

[8] kumrskar: ‘kvmskrar’ F, ‘kyrmskrar’ J1ˣ, valskar 61, 53, vaskar 54, Bb, ‘lumbærskar’ FskBˣ

notes

[5, 8] brezkrar jarðar … kumrskar þjóðir ‘of the British land … the Cumbric peoples’: Both terms are somewhat elusive, but typically refer to the Celtic, Brittonic-speaking peoples of Strathclyde (now south-west Scotland), Cumbria (north-west England) and Wales; see Poole 1987, 292-8 for a review of the usage of Bretar/brezkr in Old Norse sources. The identification of the peoples mentioned here is not helped by the uncertainty over the ordering of the stanzas (see Introduction).

Close

þjóðir ‘peoples’

þjóð (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir): people

[8] þjóðir: þjóðar F, J1ˣ

notes

[5, 8] brezkrar jarðar … kumrskar þjóðir ‘of the British land … the Cumbric peoples’: Both terms are somewhat elusive, but typically refer to the Celtic, Brittonic-speaking peoples of Strathclyde (now south-west Scotland), Cumbria (north-west England) and Wales; see Poole 1987, 292-8 for a review of the usage of Bretar/brezkr in Old Norse sources. The identification of the peoples mentioned here is not helped by the uncertainty over the ordering of the stanzas (see Introduction).

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

See Introduction.

The pairing of helmingar follows Fsk and ms. 310; see Introduction. In Hkr and ÓT, st. 5/1-4 (beginning Gerðisk) + st. 6/7-8 (Eyddi), 5-6 (Gerði) form a stanza, and st. 6/1-4 (Ýdrógar) + st. 5/5-8 (Barði) form a stanza.

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