Cookies on our website

We use cookies on this website, mainly to provide a secure browsing experience but also to collect statistics on how the website is used. You can find out more about the cookies we set, the information we store and how we use it on the cookies page.

Continue

skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

Þorm Lv 19I

R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Þormóðr Kolbrúnarskáld, Lausavísur 19’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 831.

Þormóðr KolbrúnarskáldLausavísur
18x1920x

Ála ‘of Áli’

Áli (noun m.): Áli

[1] Ála: ‘Ola’ DG8

kennings

miklu éli Ála;
‘the great storm of Áli; ’
   = BATTLE

the great storm of Áli; → BATTLE
Close

þryngr ‘presses’

þrøngva (verb): press, throng

[1] þryngr: þrǫngr 972ˣ, J2ˣ, Bæb, 68, Holm4, 61, Tóm, DG8, 142ˣ, 566aˣ, ‘þreyngr’ 321ˣ, Kˣ, ‘þravgr’ 325V, þrengr 325VII, þrǫng Bb, Flat, Hb, ‘þraumar’ papp4ˣ

notes

[1, 2] ǫrstiklandi þryngr ‘the arrow-shooter [WARRIOR = Óláfr] presses’: The ms. variants of þryngr are mostly mere alternate spellings (see CVC: þröngva). There are two main interpretations of the construction, and an alternative using the variant -stiklanda: (a) On the analysis offered here, ǫrstiklandi is the subject of þryngr, cf. Arn Þorfdr 18/2II mildingr þrǫng at hildi ‘the bountiful one stormed into battle’. (b) The verb is well attested in impersonal usage with at, meaning ‘draws nigh, approaches’ (see Vígf Lv 1/3; LP: þryngva), and this is how eds (beginning with Bartholin 1689, 174) have understood it: ‘the battle draws nigh’. Accordingly, the cpd has generally been interpreted as a vocative (as in Skj B, ÍF 6 and ÍF 27). (c) Finnur Jónsson (1932-3) argues for reading ǫrstiklanda as a dat., ‘for the arrow-shooter’, on the ground that direct address to the king is uncommon in other skalds’ verses; but cf. the next stanza, and ǫrstiklanda is for the most part the reading of the less reliable mss.

Close

éli ‘storm’

él (noun n.; °; dat. -um): storm

kennings

miklu éli Ála;
‘the great storm of Áli; ’
   = BATTLE

the great storm of Áli; → BATTLE
Close

ǫr ‘The arrow’

ǫr (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; ǫrvar/ǫrar): arrow < ǫrstiklandi (noun m.)

[2] ǫr‑: aurr 325V, ǫl‑ DG8, at papp4ˣ

kennings

Ǫrstiklandi
‘The arrow-shooter ’
   = WARRIOR = Óláfr

The arrow-shooter → WARRIOR = Óláfr

notes

[1, 2] ǫrstiklandi þryngr ‘the arrow-shooter [WARRIOR = Óláfr] presses’: The ms. variants of þryngr are mostly mere alternate spellings (see CVC: þröngva). There are two main interpretations of the construction, and an alternative using the variant -stiklanda: (a) On the analysis offered here, ǫrstiklandi is the subject of þryngr, cf. Arn Þorfdr 18/2II mildingr þrǫng at hildi ‘the bountiful one stormed into battle’. (b) The verb is well attested in impersonal usage with at, meaning ‘draws nigh, approaches’ (see Vígf Lv 1/3; LP: þryngva), and this is how eds (beginning with Bartholin 1689, 174) have understood it: ‘the battle draws nigh’. Accordingly, the cpd has generally been interpreted as a vocative (as in Skj B, ÍF 6 and ÍF 27). (c) Finnur Jónsson (1932-3) argues for reading ǫrstiklanda as a dat., ‘for the arrow-shooter’, on the ground that direct address to the king is uncommon in other skalds’ verses; but cf. the next stanza, and ǫrstiklanda is for the most part the reading of the less reliable mss. — [2] ǫrstiklandi ‘the arrow-shooter’: The resemblance to Stiklastaðir, the name of the battlefield, introduces the possibility of paranomasia. 

Close

ǫr ‘The arrow’

ǫr (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; ǫrvar/ǫrar): arrow < ǫrstiklandi (noun m.)

[2] ǫr‑: aurr 325V, ǫl‑ DG8, at papp4ˣ

kennings

Ǫrstiklandi
‘The arrow-shooter ’
   = WARRIOR = Óláfr

The arrow-shooter → WARRIOR = Óláfr

notes

[1, 2] ǫrstiklandi þryngr ‘the arrow-shooter [WARRIOR = Óláfr] presses’: The ms. variants of þryngr are mostly mere alternate spellings (see CVC: þröngva). There are two main interpretations of the construction, and an alternative using the variant -stiklanda: (a) On the analysis offered here, ǫrstiklandi is the subject of þryngr, cf. Arn Þorfdr 18/2II mildingr þrǫng at hildi ‘the bountiful one stormed into battle’. (b) The verb is well attested in impersonal usage with at, meaning ‘draws nigh, approaches’ (see Vígf Lv 1/3; LP: þryngva), and this is how eds (beginning with Bartholin 1689, 174) have understood it: ‘the battle draws nigh’. Accordingly, the cpd has generally been interpreted as a vocative (as in Skj B, ÍF 6 and ÍF 27). (c) Finnur Jónsson (1932-3) argues for reading ǫrstiklanda as a dat., ‘for the arrow-shooter’, on the ground that direct address to the king is uncommon in other skalds’ verses; but cf. the next stanza, and ǫrstiklanda is for the most part the reading of the less reliable mss. — [2] ǫrstiklandi ‘the arrow-shooter’: The resemblance to Stiklastaðir, the name of the battlefield, introduces the possibility of paranomasia. 

Close

stiklandi ‘shooter’

stiklandi (noun m.): [dispenser, shooter] < ǫrstiklandi (noun m.)

[2] ‑stiklandi: so J2ˣ, Bæb, 68, Holm4, 325V, Kˣ, Hb, 142ˣ, 566aˣ, papp4ˣ, 761bˣmarg, ‑skilandi Holm2, ‑stiklanda 972ˣ, 321ˣ, 325VII, Bb, Flat, Tóm, DG8, ‑stiklandar 61

kennings

Ǫrstiklandi
‘The arrow-shooter ’
   = WARRIOR = Óláfr

The arrow-shooter → WARRIOR = Óláfr

notes

[1, 2] ǫrstiklandi þryngr ‘the arrow-shooter [WARRIOR = Óláfr] presses’: The ms. variants of þryngr are mostly mere alternate spellings (see CVC: þröngva). There are two main interpretations of the construction, and an alternative using the variant -stiklanda: (a) On the analysis offered here, ǫrstiklandi is the subject of þryngr, cf. Arn Þorfdr 18/2II mildingr þrǫng at hildi ‘the bountiful one stormed into battle’. (b) The verb is well attested in impersonal usage with at, meaning ‘draws nigh, approaches’ (see Vígf Lv 1/3; LP: þryngva), and this is how eds (beginning with Bartholin 1689, 174) have understood it: ‘the battle draws nigh’. Accordingly, the cpd has generally been interpreted as a vocative (as in Skj B, ÍF 6 and ÍF 27). (c) Finnur Jónsson (1932-3) argues for reading ǫrstiklanda as a dat., ‘for the arrow-shooter’, on the ground that direct address to the king is uncommon in other skalds’ verses; but cf. the next stanza, and ǫrstiklanda is for the most part the reading of the less reliable mss. — [2] ǫrstiklandi ‘the arrow-shooter’: The resemblance to Stiklastaðir, the name of the battlefield, introduces the possibility of paranomasia. 

Close

stiklandi ‘shooter’

stiklandi (noun m.): [dispenser, shooter] < ǫrstiklandi (noun m.)

[2] ‑stiklandi: so J2ˣ, Bæb, 68, Holm4, 325V, Kˣ, Hb, 142ˣ, 566aˣ, papp4ˣ, 761bˣmarg, ‑skilandi Holm2, ‑stiklanda 972ˣ, 321ˣ, 325VII, Bb, Flat, Tóm, DG8, ‑stiklandar 61

kennings

Ǫrstiklandi
‘The arrow-shooter ’
   = WARRIOR = Óláfr

The arrow-shooter → WARRIOR = Óláfr

notes

[1, 2] ǫrstiklandi þryngr ‘the arrow-shooter [WARRIOR = Óláfr] presses’: The ms. variants of þryngr are mostly mere alternate spellings (see CVC: þröngva). There are two main interpretations of the construction, and an alternative using the variant -stiklanda: (a) On the analysis offered here, ǫrstiklandi is the subject of þryngr, cf. Arn Þorfdr 18/2II mildingr þrǫng at hildi ‘the bountiful one stormed into battle’. (b) The verb is well attested in impersonal usage with at, meaning ‘draws nigh, approaches’ (see Vígf Lv 1/3; LP: þryngva), and this is how eds (beginning with Bartholin 1689, 174) have understood it: ‘the battle draws nigh’. Accordingly, the cpd has generally been interpreted as a vocative (as in Skj B, ÍF 6 and ÍF 27). (c) Finnur Jónsson (1932-3) argues for reading ǫrstiklanda as a dat., ‘for the arrow-shooter’, on the ground that direct address to the king is uncommon in other skalds’ verses; but cf. the next stanza, and ǫrstiklanda is for the most part the reading of the less reliable mss. — [2] ǫrstiklandi ‘the arrow-shooter’: The resemblance to Stiklastaðir, the name of the battlefield, introduces the possibility of paranomasia. 

Close

miklu ‘the great’

mikill (adj.; °mikinn): great, large

[2] miklu: miklum Holm4

kennings

miklu éli Ála;
‘the great storm of Áli; ’
   = BATTLE

the great storm of Áli; → BATTLE
Close

skelknir ‘frightened’

1. skelkr (noun m.): fear, ?fun, frightened

[3] skelknir: ‘skelcku’ papp4ˣ

Close

hauldar ‘freeholders’

hǫlðr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): man

[3] hauldar: so all others, hǫlða Holm2

Close

skalm ‘a sword’

skalm (noun f.): sword < skalmǫld (noun f.): sword-age; Skálmǫld

[4] skalmǫld: ‘skam avlld’ 325V

kennings

skalmǫld
‘a sword-age ’
   = BATTLE

a sword-age → BATTLE

notes

[4] skalmǫld ‘a sword-age [BATTLE]’: The reference is to the impending doom, perhaps by allusion to Ragnarǫk (cf. Vsp 45/7, NK 10). The same word is used in reference to the battle of Svǫlðr in Hfr ErfÓl 25/6; its status as a kenning is somewhat uncertain.

Close

ǫld ‘age’

ǫld (noun f.; °; aldir): people, age < skalmǫld (noun f.): sword-age; Skálmǫld

[4] skalmǫld: ‘skam avlld’ 325V

kennings

skalmǫld
‘a sword-age ’
   = BATTLE

a sword-age → BATTLE

notes

[4] skalmǫld ‘a sword-age [BATTLE]’: The reference is to the impending doom, perhaps by allusion to Ragnarǫk (cf. Vsp 45/7, NK 10). The same word is used in reference to the battle of Svǫlðr in Hfr ErfÓl 25/6; its status as a kenning is somewhat uncertain.

Close

vex ‘swells’

vaxa (verb): grow, increase

[4] vex: vax 325VII, er DG8

Close

falma ‘waver’

falma (verb; °-að-): falter

[4] falma: palma 321ˣ, ‘falmra’ 61

Close

við ‘for’

2. við (prep.): with, against

[5] við: vit 972ˣ, Tóm

Close

slœkni ‘weakling’

slœkinn (adj./verb p.p.): [weakling]

[5] slœkni: slœknir 61, Flat, Tóm, slœkinn DG8

notes

[5, 6] slœkniorð ‘weakling-words’: The first constituent is presumably a compounding form of a noun *slœknir, derived from slœkinn ‘lax’ (cf. slókr ‘slouching person’).

Close

seggr ‘man’

seggr (noun m.; °; -ir): man

[6] seggr: seggir 972ˣ, seggir Flat

Close

skyli ‘ought’

skulu (verb): shall, should, must

[6] skyli‑: skulu Flat, skyla corrected from ‘sky(ni)(?)’ Tóm

Close

orð ‘words’

orð (noun n.; °-s; -): word

notes

[5, 6] slœkniorð ‘weakling-words’: The first constituent is presumably a compounding form of a noun *slœknir, derived from slœkinn ‘lax’ (cf. slókr ‘slouching person’).

Close

forðask ‘to shun’

forða (verb): escape, avoid

[6] forðask: óðask J2ˣ, ‘fǫrðaz’ Kˣ

Close

geir ‘the spear’

geirr (noun m.): spear < geirþing (noun n.): spear-assembly

kennings

geirþingi
‘the spear-assembly ’
   = BATTLE

the spear-assembly → BATTLE
Close

þingi ‘assembly’

þing (noun n.; °-s; -): meeting, assembly < geirþing (noun n.): spear-assembly

kennings

geirþingi
‘the spear-assembly ’
   = BATTLE

the spear-assembly → BATTLE
Close

gunn ‘a war’

gunnr (noun f.): battle < gunnreifr (adj.): battle-glad

notes

[8] gunnreifr ‘war-happy’: This is taken here with the sg. seggr ‘man’ in l. 6. It could equally well qualify the unexpressed subject ‘we’ of gǫngum, which could have sg. meaning; cf. the synonymous vígreifr, qualifying vér ‘we [I]’ in Lv 21/2.

Close

reifr ‘happy’

2. reifr (adj.): happy < gunnreifr (adj.): battle-glad

[8] ‑reifr: ‑reifir 972ˣ, J2ˣ, Holm4, 325V, 325VII, Bb, Flat, reip 321ˣ, ‑reifs Bæb, 68, ‑leifr DG8

notes

[8] gunnreifr ‘war-happy’: This is taken here with the sg. seggr ‘man’ in l. 6. It could equally well qualify the unexpressed subject ‘we’ of gǫngum, which could have sg. meaning; cf. the synonymous vígreifr, qualifying vér ‘we [I]’ in Lv 21/2.

Close

Ôleifi ‘Óláfr’

Óláfr (noun m.): Óláfr

[8] Ôleifi: ‘olefi’ 325V

notes

[8] Ôleifi ‘Óláfr’: The archaic form with ‑leif- demanded by the rhyme is the usual one before c. 1100. On the development of the form, see Gordon (1957, 238-9), and cf. Note to HSt Rst 3/8.

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In ÓH and Hkr, the skalds Gizurr svarti, Þorfinnr munnr and then Þormóðr exhort King Óláfr and his men before the battle of Stiklastaðir (Stiklestad). We are told that men memorized the stanzas straight away. In ÓHLeg, as battle approaches, the king instructs a farmer named Þorgeirr to bury his body afterwards and to wash the wounds of his men in the same water in which he was washed. Then Þormóðr delivers the vísa that is attributed to Gizurr in ÓH and Hkr (Gizsv Lv 1), followed without interruption by this lausavísa and the next. In Fbr, with its different arrangement of lines, Þormóðr, apparently in private conversation with the king, admits to being sad at the thought that they may not lodge together at day’s end. The king assures him that if he can arrange it, they will go to the same place. Þormóðr brightens up and delivers the stanza (i.e. Lv 19/1-4 + 20/5-8).

Lines 5-8 are not found in the mss of Fbr, which instead have ll. 5-8 of Lv 20 here. Gaertner (1907) favours the Fbr arrangement, but his argument entails taking Ála as a vocative, which is unnecessary and would entail emendation to Áli; see further Note to Lv 15 [All].

Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.