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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þorm Lv 22I

R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Þormóðr Kolbrúnarskáld, Lausavísur 22’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 837.

Þormóðr KolbrúnarskáldLausavísur
21x2223x

Haraldr ‘Haraldr’

Haraldr (noun m.): Haraldr

notes

[1] Haraldr: This is Óláfr’s half-brother, later King Haraldr harðráði ‘Hard-rule’ Sigurðarson, who took part in the battle of Stiklastaðir (Stiklestad) at the age of fifteen and was severely wounded.

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vas ‘was’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[1] vas bitr at berjask: sá ek at vel varðisk DG8

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bitr ‘sharp’

bitr (adj.; °bitran; superl. bitrastr): sharp, biting

[1] vas bitr at berjask: sá ek at vel varðisk DG8;    bitr: ‘bifr’ with bitr in margin 761bˣ

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at ‘at’

5. at (nota): to (with infinitive)

[1] vas bitr at berjask: sá ek at vel varðisk DG8

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berjask ‘fighting’

2. berja (verb; °barði; barðr/bariðr/barinn): fight

[1] vas bitr at berjask: sá ek at vel varðisk DG8

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bǫð ‘Battle’

bǫð (noun f.; °-s; -): battle < bǫðreifr (adj.)

[2] bǫð‑: víg‑ DG8

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með ‘beside’

með (prep.): with

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Ôleifi ‘Óláfr’

Óláfr (noun m.): Óláfr

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þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

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gekk ‘went’

2. ganga (verb; geng, gekk, gengu, genginn): walk, go

notes

[3] gekk ‘went’: A sg. verb with cpd subject (here Hringr ok Dagr, l. 4) is not unusual in skaldic poetry; cf. Hfr ErfÓl 27/1 and Note.

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harðra ‘of hard’

harðr (adj.; °comp. -ari; superl. -astr): hard, harsh

[3] harðra: harðr á 142ˣ, hára DG8

kennings

þingi harðra hjǫrva.
‘the assembly of hard swords. ’
   = BATTLE

the assembly of hard swords. → BATTLE

notes

[3] harðra ‘of hard’: Gaertner (1907, 346) adopts the reading hára ‘high, long’ of ÓHLeg, seemingly on the basis of the belief that harðr is not attested as an epithet for a sword; but cf. LP: harðr 1.

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hjǫrva ‘swords’

hjǫrr (noun m.): sword

[3] hjǫrva: so all others, om. Hb

kennings

þingi harðra hjǫrva.
‘the assembly of hard swords. ’
   = BATTLE

the assembly of hard swords. → BATTLE
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Hringr ‘Hringr’

2. Hringr (noun m.; °-s): Hringr

notes

[4] Hringr ok Dagr ‘Hringr and Dagr’: According to Hkr (ÍF 27, 105) King Hringr of Hedmark had been banished to Sweden when Óláfr had captured the kings of Upplǫnd (Opplandene). Snorri gives no indication that Hringr was at the battle, but his son Dagr played a prominent role, coming to the king’s aid with nearly 1200 men (ÍF 27, 348-9). Von See (1977b, 467-71) argues that both names are fictitious, derived from a genealogy constructed to give Hringaríki (Ringerike) an eponymous founder, and thus that this stanza cannot have been composed by Þormóðr. See also the Note to Lv 24/8.

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ok ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

notes

[4] Hringr ok Dagr ‘Hringr and Dagr’: According to Hkr (ÍF 27, 105) King Hringr of Hedmark had been banished to Sweden when Óláfr had captured the kings of Upplǫnd (Opplandene). Snorri gives no indication that Hringr was at the battle, but his son Dagr played a prominent role, coming to the king’s aid with nearly 1200 men (ÍF 27, 348-9). Von See (1977b, 467-71) argues that both names are fictitious, derived from a genealogy constructed to give Hringaríki (Ringerike) an eponymous founder, and thus that this stanza cannot have been composed by Þormóðr. See also the Note to Lv 24/8.

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Dagr ‘Dagr’

2. Dagr (noun m.): Dagr

notes

[4] Hringr ok Dagr ‘Hringr and Dagr’: According to Hkr (ÍF 27, 105) King Hringr of Hedmark had been banished to Sweden when Óláfr had captured the kings of Upplǫnd (Opplandene). Snorri gives no indication that Hringr was at the battle, but his son Dagr played a prominent role, coming to the king’s aid with nearly 1200 men (ÍF 27, 348-9). Von See (1977b, 467-71) argues that both names are fictitious, derived from a genealogy constructed to give Hringaríki (Ringerike) an eponymous founder, and thus that this stanza cannot have been composed by Þormóðr. See also the Note to Lv 24/8.

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at ‘to’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[4] at: á Flat, DG8

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þingi ‘the assembly’

þing (noun n.; °-s; -): meeting, assembly

kennings

þingi harðra hjǫrva.
‘the assembly of hard swords. ’
   = BATTLE

the assembly of hard swords. → BATTLE
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Réðu ‘’

ráða (verb): advise, rule, interpret, decide

[5] Réðu: so all others, réðusk Hb

notes

[5, 6] réðu at standa ‘stood’: Réðu (inf. ráða) is here, as frequently, merely an auxiliary (see LP: ráða 12). Skj B and Skald also prefer this, the reading of all the other mss, to that of Hb, réðusk at standa ‘took their positions, resolved to stand’, which looks like a scribal improvement.

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und ‘under’

3. und (prep.): under, underneath

[5] und: um 142ˣ, 566aˣ, 761bˣ

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at ‘’

5. at (nota): to (with infinitive)

notes

[5, 6] réðu at standa ‘stood’: Réðu (inf. ráða) is here, as frequently, merely an auxiliary (see LP: ráða 12). Skj B and Skald also prefer this, the reading of all the other mss, to that of Hb, réðusk at standa ‘took their positions, resolved to stand’, which looks like a scribal improvement.

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standa ‘stood’

standa (verb): stand

notes

[5, 6] réðu at standa ‘stood’: Réðu (inf. ráða) is here, as frequently, merely an auxiliary (see LP: ráða 12). Skj B and Skald also prefer this, the reading of all the other mss, to that of Hb, réðusk at standa ‘took their positions, resolved to stand’, which looks like a scribal improvement.

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ben ‘the wound’

1. ben (noun f.; °-jar, dat. -; -jar , gen. -a(var. EiðKrC 402¹³: AM 77 4°— “D”)): wound < benþiðurr (noun m.): [wound-grouse]

kennings

benþiðurr
‘the wound-grouse ’
   = RAVEN/EAGLE

the wound-grouse → RAVEN/EAGLE
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þiðurr ‘grouse’

þiðurr (noun m.; °þiðurs; þiðrar): grouse, capercaillie < benþiðurr (noun m.): [wound-grouse]

[7] ‑þiðurr blakkan: ‑þiðurs blakki all others

kennings

benþiðurr
‘the wound-grouse ’
   = RAVEN/EAGLE

the wound-grouse → RAVEN/EAGLE
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blakkan ‘dark’

2. blakkr (adj.): black

[7] ‑þiðurr blakkan: ‑þiðurs blakki all others

notes

[7-8] blakkan bjór ‘dark beer [blood]’: Structurally, this is not a complete kenning, since it lacks a determinant referring to a beast of battle (see Meissner 207-8 for complete examples), but semantically a determinant is provided by benþiðurr ‘wound-grouse’ (cf. Note to Lv 10/2).

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bjór ‘beer’

1. bjórr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -): beer

[8] bjór: bjórr DG8

notes

[7-8] blakkan bjór ‘dark beer [blood]’: Structurally, this is not a complete kenning, since it lacks a determinant referring to a beast of battle (see Meissner 207-8 for complete examples), but semantically a determinant is provided by benþiðurr ‘wound-grouse’ (cf. Note to Lv 10/2).

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Cf. Lv 21. In Fbr and ÓHLeg, a woman asks Þormóðr which of Óláfr’s men were most valiant in the battle, and he replies. In Málfræðinnar grundvǫllr, the first section of TGT, l. 4 is cited to illustrate the use of the conjunction, here ok ‘and’.

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