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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Brúðv 13VII

Valgerður Erna Þorvaldsdóttir (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Brúðkaupsvísur 13’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 538-9.

Anonymous PoemsBrúðkaupsvísur
121314

sæl ‘The blessed’

sæll (adj.): happy, blessed

notes

[1] sæl snót ‘the blessed woman’: The Virgin Mary.

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snót ‘woman’

snót (noun f.; °; -ir): woman

notes

[1] sæl snót ‘the blessed woman’: The Virgin Mary.

Close

sýnum ‘seemingly’

sýnn (adj.): visible

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keyri ‘driver’

keyrir (noun m.): [driver of, driver]

kennings

kænum keyri kafþjórs,
‘to the skilful driver of the ox of the deep ’
   = SEAFARER

the ox of the deep → SHIP
to the skilful driver of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

kaf ‘of the deep’

kaf (noun n.; °; *-): deep sea < kafþjórr (noun m.)

kennings

kænum keyri kafþjórs,
‘to the skilful driver of the ox of the deep ’
   = SEAFARER

the ox of the deep → SHIP
to the skilful driver of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

kaf ‘of the deep’

kaf (noun n.; °; *-): deep sea < kafþjórr (noun m.)

kennings

kænum keyri kafþjórs,
‘to the skilful driver of the ox of the deep ’
   = SEAFARER

the ox of the deep → SHIP
to the skilful driver of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

þjórs ‘of the ox’

þjórr (noun m.; °; -ar): [ox] < kafþjórr (noun m.)

kennings

kænum keyri kafþjórs,
‘to the skilful driver of the ox of the deep ’
   = SEAFARER

the ox of the deep → SHIP
to the skilful driver of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

þjórs ‘of the ox’

þjórr (noun m.; °; -ar): [ox] < kafþjórr (noun m.)

kennings

kænum keyri kafþjórs,
‘to the skilful driver of the ox of the deep ’
   = SEAFARER

the ox of the deep → SHIP
to the skilful driver of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

kænum ‘to the skilful’

2. kœnn (adj.; °superl. kǿnstr/kǿnastr): wise, skilful

kennings

kænum keyri kafþjórs,
‘to the skilful driver of the ox of the deep ’
   = SEAFARER

the ox of the deep → SHIP
to the skilful driver of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

svaf ‘slept’

sofa (verb): sleep

[4] svaf: so 399a‑bˣ, 2166ˣ, ‘saf’ 721, 1032ˣ

Close

heilög ‘the holy’

heilagr (adj.; °helgan; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): holy, sacred

notes

[5-8] heilög hring-Sól heiðar röðuls ‘the holy ring-Sól of the heath of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > SUN > = Mary]’: Hring-Sól could be taken as a simple woman-kenning: ‘Sól <goddess, personification of the sun> of the rings’ [WOMAN]. It could also be a part of an inverted kenning; ‘the holy Sól of the ring of the heath of the sun’, creating a sort of threefold image of the sun, first the base-word itself (Sól), then in the two sub-kennings. Hringr ‘ring’ does not usually occur in sun-kennings, but the word can be used to denote forskellige slags ‘ringe, ringformede genstande’ ‘various kinds of round and ring-formed things’ (LP: hringr), presumably including the sun. Cf. Schottmann 1973, 129 on this kind of kenning for the Virgin. On Sól as a personification of the sun, see SnE 1982, 13. The bright imagery in the kenning forms a sharp contrast to the ‘angry and unhappy’ appearance of Mary (reið og óglöð), who is described as ófrýn sýnum ‘seemingly frowning’ in the previous helmingr (l. 2). In Mar she is more decorous: með hrygðar yfirbragði ‘with the appearance of sorrow’ (Mar 1871, 119).

Close

hring ‘of the ring’

1. hringr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ar): ring; sword < hringsól (noun f.)

kennings

röðuls heiðar hring-Sól
‘ring-Sól of the heath of the sun’
   = Mary

the heath of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the ring of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
Sól of the SUN → Mary

notes

[5-8] heilög hring-Sól heiðar röðuls ‘the holy ring-Sól of the heath of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > SUN > = Mary]’: Hring-Sól could be taken as a simple woman-kenning: ‘Sól <goddess, personification of the sun> of the rings’ [WOMAN]. It could also be a part of an inverted kenning; ‘the holy Sól of the ring of the heath of the sun’, creating a sort of threefold image of the sun, first the base-word itself (Sól), then in the two sub-kennings. Hringr ‘ring’ does not usually occur in sun-kennings, but the word can be used to denote forskellige slags ‘ringe, ringformede genstande’ ‘various kinds of round and ring-formed things’ (LP: hringr), presumably including the sun. Cf. Schottmann 1973, 129 on this kind of kenning for the Virgin. On Sól as a personification of the sun, see SnE 1982, 13. The bright imagery in the kenning forms a sharp contrast to the ‘angry and unhappy’ appearance of Mary (reið og óglöð), who is described as ófrýn sýnum ‘seemingly frowning’ in the previous helmingr (l. 2). In Mar she is more decorous: með hrygðar yfirbragði ‘with the appearance of sorrow’ (Mar 1871, 119).

Close

hring ‘of the ring’

1. hringr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ar): ring; sword < hringsól (noun f.)

kennings

röðuls heiðar hring-Sól
‘ring-Sól of the heath of the sun’
   = Mary

the heath of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the ring of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
Sól of the SUN → Mary

notes

[5-8] heilög hring-Sól heiðar röðuls ‘the holy ring-Sól of the heath of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > SUN > = Mary]’: Hring-Sól could be taken as a simple woman-kenning: ‘Sól <goddess, personification of the sun> of the rings’ [WOMAN]. It could also be a part of an inverted kenning; ‘the holy Sól of the ring of the heath of the sun’, creating a sort of threefold image of the sun, first the base-word itself (Sól), then in the two sub-kennings. Hringr ‘ring’ does not usually occur in sun-kennings, but the word can be used to denote forskellige slags ‘ringe, ringformede genstande’ ‘various kinds of round and ring-formed things’ (LP: hringr), presumably including the sun. Cf. Schottmann 1973, 129 on this kind of kenning for the Virgin. On Sól as a personification of the sun, see SnE 1982, 13. The bright imagery in the kenning forms a sharp contrast to the ‘angry and unhappy’ appearance of Mary (reið og óglöð), who is described as ófrýn sýnum ‘seemingly frowning’ in the previous helmingr (l. 2). In Mar she is more decorous: með hrygðar yfirbragði ‘with the appearance of sorrow’ (Mar 1871, 119).

Close

Sól ‘Sól’

2. Sól (noun f.): Sól < hringsól (noun f.)

kennings

röðuls heiðar hring-Sól
‘ring-Sól of the heath of the sun’
   = Mary

the heath of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the ring of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
Sól of the SUN → Mary

notes

[5-8] heilög hring-Sól heiðar röðuls ‘the holy ring-Sól of the heath of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > SUN > = Mary]’: Hring-Sól could be taken as a simple woman-kenning: ‘Sól <goddess, personification of the sun> of the rings’ [WOMAN]. It could also be a part of an inverted kenning; ‘the holy Sól of the ring of the heath of the sun’, creating a sort of threefold image of the sun, first the base-word itself (Sól), then in the two sub-kennings. Hringr ‘ring’ does not usually occur in sun-kennings, but the word can be used to denote forskellige slags ‘ringe, ringformede genstande’ ‘various kinds of round and ring-formed things’ (LP: hringr), presumably including the sun. Cf. Schottmann 1973, 129 on this kind of kenning for the Virgin. On Sól as a personification of the sun, see SnE 1982, 13. The bright imagery in the kenning forms a sharp contrast to the ‘angry and unhappy’ appearance of Mary (reið og óglöð), who is described as ófrýn sýnum ‘seemingly frowning’ in the previous helmingr (l. 2). In Mar she is more decorous: með hrygðar yfirbragði ‘with the appearance of sorrow’ (Mar 1871, 119).

Close

heiðar ‘of the heath’

3. heiðr (noun f.; °heiðar, dat./acc heiði; heiðar): heath

kennings

röðuls heiðar hring-Sól
‘ring-Sól of the heath of the sun’
   = Mary

the heath of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the ring of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
Sól of the SUN → Mary

notes

[5-8] heilög hring-Sól heiðar röðuls ‘the holy ring-Sól of the heath of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > SUN > = Mary]’: Hring-Sól could be taken as a simple woman-kenning: ‘Sól <goddess, personification of the sun> of the rings’ [WOMAN]. It could also be a part of an inverted kenning; ‘the holy Sól of the ring of the heath of the sun’, creating a sort of threefold image of the sun, first the base-word itself (Sól), then in the two sub-kennings. Hringr ‘ring’ does not usually occur in sun-kennings, but the word can be used to denote forskellige slags ‘ringe, ringformede genstande’ ‘various kinds of round and ring-formed things’ (LP: hringr), presumably including the sun. Cf. Schottmann 1973, 129 on this kind of kenning for the Virgin. On Sól as a personification of the sun, see SnE 1982, 13. The bright imagery in the kenning forms a sharp contrast to the ‘angry and unhappy’ appearance of Mary (reið og óglöð), who is described as ófrýn sýnum ‘seemingly frowning’ in the previous helmingr (l. 2). In Mar she is more decorous: með hrygðar yfirbragði ‘with the appearance of sorrow’ (Mar 1871, 119).

Close

heiðar ‘of the heath’

3. heiðr (noun f.; °heiðar, dat./acc heiði; heiðar): heath

kennings

röðuls heiðar hring-Sól
‘ring-Sól of the heath of the sun’
   = Mary

the heath of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the ring of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
Sól of the SUN → Mary

notes

[5-8] heilög hring-Sól heiðar röðuls ‘the holy ring-Sól of the heath of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > SUN > = Mary]’: Hring-Sól could be taken as a simple woman-kenning: ‘Sól <goddess, personification of the sun> of the rings’ [WOMAN]. It could also be a part of an inverted kenning; ‘the holy Sól of the ring of the heath of the sun’, creating a sort of threefold image of the sun, first the base-word itself (Sól), then in the two sub-kennings. Hringr ‘ring’ does not usually occur in sun-kennings, but the word can be used to denote forskellige slags ‘ringe, ringformede genstande’ ‘various kinds of round and ring-formed things’ (LP: hringr), presumably including the sun. Cf. Schottmann 1973, 129 on this kind of kenning for the Virgin. On Sól as a personification of the sun, see SnE 1982, 13. The bright imagery in the kenning forms a sharp contrast to the ‘angry and unhappy’ appearance of Mary (reið og óglöð), who is described as ófrýn sýnum ‘seemingly frowning’ in the previous helmingr (l. 2). In Mar she is more decorous: með hrygðar yfirbragði ‘with the appearance of sorrow’ (Mar 1871, 119).

Close

heiðar ‘of the heath’

3. heiðr (noun f.; °heiðar, dat./acc heiði; heiðar): heath

kennings

röðuls heiðar hring-Sól
‘ring-Sól of the heath of the sun’
   = Mary

the heath of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the ring of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
Sól of the SUN → Mary

notes

[5-8] heilög hring-Sól heiðar röðuls ‘the holy ring-Sól of the heath of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > SUN > = Mary]’: Hring-Sól could be taken as a simple woman-kenning: ‘Sól <goddess, personification of the sun> of the rings’ [WOMAN]. It could also be a part of an inverted kenning; ‘the holy Sól of the ring of the heath of the sun’, creating a sort of threefold image of the sun, first the base-word itself (Sól), then in the two sub-kennings. Hringr ‘ring’ does not usually occur in sun-kennings, but the word can be used to denote forskellige slags ‘ringe, ringformede genstande’ ‘various kinds of round and ring-formed things’ (LP: hringr), presumably including the sun. Cf. Schottmann 1973, 129 on this kind of kenning for the Virgin. On Sól as a personification of the sun, see SnE 1982, 13. The bright imagery in the kenning forms a sharp contrast to the ‘angry and unhappy’ appearance of Mary (reið og óglöð), who is described as ófrýn sýnum ‘seemingly frowning’ in the previous helmingr (l. 2). In Mar she is more decorous: með hrygðar yfirbragði ‘with the appearance of sorrow’ (Mar 1871, 119).

Close

randa ‘of shields’

rǫnd (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; rendr/randir): shield, shield-rim

kennings

randa róg-Þund.
‘strife-Þundr of shields’
   = WARRIOR

the strife of shields. → BATTLE
to the Þundr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

randa ‘of shields’

rǫnd (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; rendr/randir): shield, shield-rim

kennings

randa róg-Þund.
‘strife-Þundr of shields’
   = WARRIOR

the strife of shields. → BATTLE
to the Þundr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

róg ‘of the strife’

róg (noun n.; °-s): strife, slander < rógþundr (noun m.)

kennings

randa róg-Þund.
‘strife-Þundr of shields’
   = WARRIOR

the strife of shields. → BATTLE
to the Þundr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

róg ‘of the strife’

róg (noun n.; °-s): strife, slander < rógþundr (noun m.)

kennings

randa róg-Þund.
‘strife-Þundr of shields’
   = WARRIOR

the strife of shields. → BATTLE
to the Þundr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

Þund ‘to the Þundr’

Þundr (noun m.): Þundr < rógþundr (noun m.)

kennings

randa róg-Þund.
‘strife-Þundr of shields’
   = WARRIOR

the strife of shields. → BATTLE
to the Þundr of the BATTLE → WARRIOR
Close

röðuls ‘of the sun’

rǫðull (noun m.; °dat. rǫðli): heavenly body

kennings

röðuls heiðar hring-Sól
‘ring-Sól of the heath of the sun’
   = Mary

the heath of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the ring of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
Sól of the SUN → Mary

notes

[5-8] heilög hring-Sól heiðar röðuls ‘the holy ring-Sól of the heath of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > SUN > = Mary]’: Hring-Sól could be taken as a simple woman-kenning: ‘Sól <goddess, personification of the sun> of the rings’ [WOMAN]. It could also be a part of an inverted kenning; ‘the holy Sól of the ring of the heath of the sun’, creating a sort of threefold image of the sun, first the base-word itself (Sól), then in the two sub-kennings. Hringr ‘ring’ does not usually occur in sun-kennings, but the word can be used to denote forskellige slags ‘ringe, ringformede genstande’ ‘various kinds of round and ring-formed things’ (LP: hringr), presumably including the sun. Cf. Schottmann 1973, 129 on this kind of kenning for the Virgin. On Sól as a personification of the sun, see SnE 1982, 13. The bright imagery in the kenning forms a sharp contrast to the ‘angry and unhappy’ appearance of Mary (reið og óglöð), who is described as ófrýn sýnum ‘seemingly frowning’ in the previous helmingr (l. 2). In Mar she is more decorous: með hrygðar yfirbragði ‘with the appearance of sorrow’ (Mar 1871, 119).

Close

röðuls ‘of the sun’

rǫðull (noun m.; °dat. rǫðli): heavenly body

kennings

röðuls heiðar hring-Sól
‘ring-Sól of the heath of the sun’
   = Mary

the heath of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the ring of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
Sól of the SUN → Mary

notes

[5-8] heilög hring-Sól heiðar röðuls ‘the holy ring-Sól of the heath of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > SUN > = Mary]’: Hring-Sól could be taken as a simple woman-kenning: ‘Sól <goddess, personification of the sun> of the rings’ [WOMAN]. It could also be a part of an inverted kenning; ‘the holy Sól of the ring of the heath of the sun’, creating a sort of threefold image of the sun, first the base-word itself (Sól), then in the two sub-kennings. Hringr ‘ring’ does not usually occur in sun-kennings, but the word can be used to denote forskellige slags ‘ringe, ringformede genstande’ ‘various kinds of round and ring-formed things’ (LP: hringr), presumably including the sun. Cf. Schottmann 1973, 129 on this kind of kenning for the Virgin. On Sól as a personification of the sun, see SnE 1982, 13. The bright imagery in the kenning forms a sharp contrast to the ‘angry and unhappy’ appearance of Mary (reið og óglöð), who is described as ófrýn sýnum ‘seemingly frowning’ in the previous helmingr (l. 2). In Mar she is more decorous: með hrygðar yfirbragði ‘with the appearance of sorrow’ (Mar 1871, 119).

Close

röðuls ‘of the sun’

rǫðull (noun m.; °dat. rǫðli): heavenly body

kennings

röðuls heiðar hring-Sól
‘ring-Sól of the heath of the sun’
   = Mary

the heath of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the ring of the SKY/HEAVEN → SUN
Sól of the SUN → Mary

notes

[5-8] heilög hring-Sól heiðar röðuls ‘the holy ring-Sól of the heath of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > SUN > = Mary]’: Hring-Sól could be taken as a simple woman-kenning: ‘Sól <goddess, personification of the sun> of the rings’ [WOMAN]. It could also be a part of an inverted kenning; ‘the holy Sól of the ring of the heath of the sun’, creating a sort of threefold image of the sun, first the base-word itself (Sól), then in the two sub-kennings. Hringr ‘ring’ does not usually occur in sun-kennings, but the word can be used to denote forskellige slags ‘ringe, ringformede genstande’ ‘various kinds of round and ring-formed things’ (LP: hringr), presumably including the sun. Cf. Schottmann 1973, 129 on this kind of kenning for the Virgin. On Sól as a personification of the sun, see SnE 1982, 13. The bright imagery in the kenning forms a sharp contrast to the ‘angry and unhappy’ appearance of Mary (reið og óglöð), who is described as ófrýn sýnum ‘seemingly frowning’ in the previous helmingr (l. 2). In Mar she is more decorous: með hrygðar yfirbragði ‘with the appearance of sorrow’ (Mar 1871, 119).

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óglöð ‘unhappy’

óglaðr (adj.): [unhappy]

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