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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Heildr 12VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Heilags anda drápa 12’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 461-2.

Anonymous PoemsHeilags anda drápa
111213

mátt ‘you can’

mega (verb): may, might

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huggari ‘comforter’

huggari (noun m.; °-a): comforter

notes

[2] huggari ‘comforter’: See Note to 4/2 above. Here the word is clearly a calque on the Lat. paraclitus lit. ‘advocate, intercessor’.

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kallask ‘be called’

kalla (verb): call

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harðla ‘the very’

harðla (adv.): very, highly, greatly

[3] harðla: ‘hard’ B, 399a‑bˣ

notes

[3] harðla ‘very’: The first part of the word, ‘hard’, is written at the end of 10r, l. 23 and may be incomplete. What is missing may be an adj. in the n. nom. sg., agreeing with n. traust ‘trust, shelter’ (l. 3), intensified by the prefix harð- ‘very, greatly’ etc. Skj B, Skald and Rydberg adopt Sveinbjörn Egilsson’s reconstruction to n. harðfengt ‘hardy, valiant’. They take the periphrasis for the Holy Spirit, harðfengt traust seggja ‘valiant shelter of men’ (ll. 3, 1) as parallel to snjallr huggari ‘wise comforter’ (l. 2). This edn follows the construction implied by Einar Ólafur Sveinsson (1942, 144), assuming that the missing element of l. 3 is an adv. like harðla or harða (both meaning ‘very’). Einar (by implication) takes the addressee of the verse, the Holy Spirit, to be snjallr huggari sanndyggra seggja ‘wise comforter of truly faithful men’ and then construes harð(l)a traust heiðgjöf ens hæsta konungs jöfra ‘you may be called the very trusty honour-gift of the highest king of kings’, understanding traust as a strong adj. ‘strong, trusty’ in the f. sg. nom. This reading allows a much more straightforward w.o. to the helmingr and offers a direct translation of the Lat. donum Dei altissimi.

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traust ‘trusty’

traustr (adj.): trusty

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ins ‘of the’

2. inn (art.): the

kennings

ins hæsta konungs jöfra.
‘of the highest king of kings. ’
   = God

the highest king of kings. → God
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hæsta ‘highest’

hœgri (adj. comp.): higher, highest

kennings

ins hæsta konungs jöfra.
‘of the highest king of kings. ’
   = God

the highest king of kings. → God
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konungs ‘king’

konungr (noun m.; °dat. -i, -s; -ar): king

kennings

ins hæsta konungs jöfra.
‘of the highest king of kings. ’
   = God

the highest king of kings. → God
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jöfra ‘of kings’

jǫfurr (noun m.): ruler, prince

kennings

ins hæsta konungs jöfra.
‘of the highest king of kings. ’
   = God

the highest king of kings. → God
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eilífr ‘the everlasting’

eilífr (adj.): eternal

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hinn ‘’

2. inn (art.): the

notes

[7]: This l., as it stands in B, is unsatisfactory metrically and difficult in terms of sense; hinn er ‘that which’, referring to brunnr (l. 6), gives a l. in which alliteration falls on the unstressed rel. particle and the rhyme is imperfect. Kock (NN §1409) objects to this, and suggests emendation of sára to undir (acc. pl. of f. und ‘wound’), also emending vit ‘conscience’ (l. 8) to vítt ‘widely’. Finnur Jónsson, following Sveinbjörn Egilsson, deals with the problem by emending B’s ‘hin er’ to er ens and taking the next two words as a cpd andar-sára, reading it with vit ens andar-sára, as detailed in the previous Note.

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er ‘which’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

notes

[7]: This l., as it stands in B, is unsatisfactory metrically and difficult in terms of sense; hinn er ‘that which’, referring to brunnr (l. 6), gives a l. in which alliteration falls on the unstressed rel. particle and the rhyme is imperfect. Kock (NN §1409) objects to this, and suggests emendation of sára to undir (acc. pl. of f. und ‘wound’), also emending vit ‘conscience’ (l. 8) to vítt ‘widely’. Finnur Jónsson, following Sveinbjörn Egilsson, deals with the problem by emending B’s ‘hin er’ to er ens and taking the next two words as a cpd andar-sára, reading it with vit ens andar-sára, as detailed in the previous Note.

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andar ‘of the soul’

andi (noun m.; °-a; -ar): spirit, soul

notes

[7]: This l., as it stands in B, is unsatisfactory metrically and difficult in terms of sense; hinn er ‘that which’, referring to brunnr (l. 6), gives a l. in which alliteration falls on the unstressed rel. particle and the rhyme is imperfect. Kock (NN §1409) objects to this, and suggests emendation of sára to undir (acc. pl. of f. und ‘wound’), also emending vit ‘conscience’ (l. 8) to vítt ‘widely’. Finnur Jónsson, following Sveinbjörn Egilsson, deals with the problem by emending B’s ‘hin er’ to er ens and taking the next two words as a cpd andar-sára, reading it with vit ens andar-sára, as detailed in the previous Note.

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sára ‘of wounds’

2. sár (noun n.; °-s; -): wound

notes

[7]: This l., as it stands in B, is unsatisfactory metrically and difficult in terms of sense; hinn er ‘that which’, referring to brunnr (l. 6), gives a l. in which alliteration falls on the unstressed rel. particle and the rhyme is imperfect. Kock (NN §1409) objects to this, and suggests emendation of sára to undir (acc. pl. of f. und ‘wound’), also emending vit ‘conscience’ (l. 8) to vítt ‘widely’. Finnur Jónsson, following Sveinbjörn Egilsson, deals with the problem by emending B’s ‘hin er’ to er ens and taking the next two words as a cpd andar-sára, reading it with vit ens andar-sára, as detailed in the previous Note.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The Lat. text of which this st. is a translation reads as follows: Qui paraclitus diceris / donum Dei altissimi / fons vivus, ignis, caritas / et spiritalis unctio ‘You who are called Paraclete, gift of highest God, living spring, fire, love and spiritual unction’. — [6-8]: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) construes ertu … eilífr ok heilagr brunnr, er hreinsar vit ens andar-sára einsmurning ‘you are … an eternal and holy spring, which purifies the senses of the soul-sick with an excellent salve’. The Lat. text, however, lists four distinct attributes of the Spirit in apposition, confirming that brunnr ‘spring’ and einsmurning ‘unique unction’ must be treated as parallel: fons vivus, ignis, caritas et spiritalis unctio.

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