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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon (ÓT) 2I

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Lausavísur, Lausavísur from Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar in mesta 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1084.

Anonymous LausavísurLausavísur from Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar in mesta
123

Of ‘too’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

notes

[1] stendr of fjarri ‘stands too far off’: Cf. Hfr ErfÓl 25/2. Of fjarri could be taken as either one word or two (cf. LP: offjarri, indicating doubt).

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fjarri ‘far off’

fjarri (adv.): far, far from it, unlikely

notes

[1] stendr of fjarri ‘stands too far off’: Cf. Hfr ErfÓl 25/2. Of fjarri could be taken as either one word or two (cf. LP: offjarri, indicating doubt).

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stendr ‘stands’

standa (verb): stand

notes

[1] stendr of fjarri ‘stands too far off’: Cf. Hfr ErfÓl 25/2. Of fjarri could be taken as either one word or two (cf. LP: offjarri, indicating doubt).

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errinn ‘bold’

errinn (adj.): bold

[1] errinn: œrinn 62

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ormr ‘serpent’

ormr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): serpent

[2] ormr: orm 53, orms 54, Bb

notes

[2] ormr ‘serpent’: Like snákr ‘snake’ in l. 7, this refers to Óláfr’s ship, perhaps specifically to the famous Ormr inn langi ‘the Long Serpent’, though if so ÓT cites the present stanza out of chronological sequence in ch. 212, as the Long Serpent is not built until ch. 223. These words meaning ‘snake’ may alternatively be ship-heiti, as, e.g., in ÞjóðA Har 1/4, 5II. On Ormr and poetic references to it, see Notes to Hfr ErfÓl 10/1, Hókr Eirfl 3/4.

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brunar ‘rushes’

bruna (verb; °-að-): speed

[2] brunar: ‘brun’ 53, 54, Bb

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at ‘towards’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[2] at: á 53, 54

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nǫkkva ‘the boat’

1. nǫkkvi (noun m.; °-a): boat

[2] nǫkkva: nǫkkvi Flat

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hôr ‘tall’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high

notes

[3] hôr ‘tall’: The syntactic parallelism between the two helmingar suggests this adj. should be construed with hlýri ‘brother’ in the main clause. It could alternatively be taken as qualifying ormr ‘serpent’ (i.e. ‘ship’), as in Skj B (rejected in NN §1963).

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hyggju ‘mind’

1. hyggja (noun f.; °-u; -ur): thought, mind

[3] hyggju: hrygginn 54, hryggum Bb, hygginn Flat

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stóra ‘great’

stórr (adj.): large, great

[3] stóra: stjóra Bb, 62, Flat

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hlýri ‘brother’

hlýri (noun m.): brother

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vinnur ‘achievements’

1. vinna (noun f.; °-u; -ur): achievement, deed

[4] vinnur: vinnr 62, vinnir Flat

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hér ‘here’

hér (adv.): here

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hárir ‘grey-haired’

hárr (adj.): grey

[5] hárir: ‘hęrir’ Bb, ‘harrar’ 62, ‘harar’ Flat

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Harð ‘of Harð’

harðr (adj.; °comp. -ari; superl. -astr): hard, harsh < harðráðr (adj.): hard-ruling

[6] Harð‑: her‑ 62

notes

[6] Harðráðs ‘of Harðráðr’: Attested elsewhere both as a nickname meaning ‘Hard-rule’, most famously of King Haraldr Sigurðarson, r. 1045-66, and as a proper name (Unger 1877, I, 661, though it is Latinized as Harderadus and the context is a translation of the vita of S. Maurus). Previous eds, with the exception of Fms, prefer 62’s Herráðs ‘of Herráðr’, but there is no reason to discard the majority reading. It is uncertain whether Harðráðr is a man or a giant, but the name resembles the giant-names Harðgreipr (Þul Jǫtna II 1/7III) and Harðverkr (Þul Jǫtna I 2/1III), and other circumstances might indicate a giant (see Introduction).

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ráðs ‘ráðr’

-ráðr (adj.): -ful < harðráðr (adj.): hard-ruling

notes

[6] Harðráðs ‘of Harðráðr’: Attested elsewhere both as a nickname meaning ‘Hard-rule’, most famously of King Haraldr Sigurðarson, r. 1045-66, and as a proper name (Unger 1877, I, 661, though it is Latinized as Harderadus and the context is a translation of the vita of S. Maurus). Previous eds, with the exception of Fms, prefer 62’s Herráðs ‘of Herráðr’, but there is no reason to discard the majority reading. It is uncertain whether Harðráðr is a man or a giant, but the name resembles the giant-names Harðgreipr (Þul Jǫtna II 1/7III) and Harðverkr (Þul Jǫtna I 2/1III), and other circumstances might indicate a giant (see Introduction).

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snákr ‘the snake’

snákr (noun m.): snake

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þars ‘where’

þars (conj.): where

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brim ‘the surf’

brim (noun n.): surf

[7] brim: ‘brun’ Bb, Flat

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blíkir ‘glistens’

blíkja (verb): gleam, glisten

[7] blíkir: bleikir all others

notes

[7] blíkir ‘glistens’: Rhyme and metre require this otherwise unattested weak form, cf. the strong verb blíkja ‘gleam, glisten’. LP: 2. blíkja assumes a weak verb and takes this as an impersonal usage. The majority reading bleikir is also metrically suitable, and could be from adj. bleikr ‘pale’ or verb bleikja ‘to bleach’, but neither fits the context.

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brœðr ‘brothers’

bróðir (noun m.; °bróður/brǿðr/bróðurs, dat. bróður/brǿðr/breðr, acc. bróður/brǿðr; brǿðr/bróðr/breðr (brǿðrirnir Jvs291 75¹⁴), gen. brǿ---): brother

notes

[8] tveir brœðr ‘two brothers’: The present edn agrees with Kock (Skald; NN §§1964, 2247B) in taking this in apposition to synir báðir ‘both sons’ in l. 6 as the joint subject of værim ‘were’ in l. 5. Skj B on the other hand takes it with flœðim ‘we would not have fled’.

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tveir ‘two’

tveir (num. cardinal): two

notes

[8] tveir brœðr ‘two brothers’: The present edn agrees with Kock (Skald; NN §§1964, 2247B) in taking this in apposition to synir báðir ‘both sons’ in l. 6 as the joint subject of værim ‘were’ in l. 5. Skj B on the other hand takes it with flœðim ‘we would not have fled’.

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‘we would not’

né (conj.): nor

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þá ‘then’

2. þá (adv.): then

notes

[8] þá ‘then’: This could equally well be the m. acc. pl. pron. þá ‘them’, referring to Óláfr and his men.

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flœðim ‘have fled’

flœða (verb): [have fled]

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

(See Introduction above.) The wild-eyed nǫkkvamaðr ‘man in a boat’ rows away with superhuman speed toward some cliffs; with great effort King Óláfr and his men close the distance. The king addresses the nǫkkvamaðr and he replies in prose and then verse.

[2] døkkr : nǫkkva: The aðalhending is inexact if the two vowels have their etymological value. It is possible that the two sounds would have been sufficiently close for the rhyme to be acceptable if the stanza dates not from the C10th but from the C13th or later (cf. Note to SnSt Ht 73/2III), but definite conclusions cannot be built on this point. — [5-8]: The conditional ef-clause precedes the main clause flœðim þá ‘we would not have fled then’. This situation is the most common exception to the normal ordering of skaldic helmingar, with main clause first (Kuhn 1983, 190-1).

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