Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Skipa heiti 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 865.
Hringr, Gnóð, freki, hrǫð, móðrói,
hemlir, barði ok hylbauti,
ugla, leðja ok askvitull,
kœna, ketla, kati, reið ok Skalpr.
Hringr, Gnóð, freki, hrǫð, móðrói, hemlir, barði ok hylbauti, ugla, leðja ok askvitull, kœna, ketla, kati, reið ok Skalpr.
Ring, Gnóð, greedy one, swift one, fierce-rower, rowlock-strapped one, beaked one and depth-beater, ugla, lighter and askvitull, dinghy, ketla, kati, vehicle and Skálpr.
Mss: R(43v), Tˣ(45v), C(13r), A(19v), B(9r), 744ˣ(76r-v) (SnE)
Readings:  hrǫð: so A, B, hrauð R, Tˣ, C; móðrói: ‘modþroi’ C  ok: om. Tˣ; hylbauti: ‘hy᷎l[…]uti’ B, ‘hýlbaute’ 744ˣ  ugla: ugla ok C  ok: om. Tˣ; askvitull (‘ask vitvll’): ‘askvitill’ A  kœna: so Tˣ, A, B, kona R, ‘kiatla’ C; ketla: ‘ko᷎tla’ Tˣ, ‘kiana’ C, ‘kø᷎tla’ A, ‘kotla’ B  ok: om. Tˣ
Notes:  hringr (m.) ‘ring’: Perhaps ‘one with a curled or spiral stem’ (Falk 1912, 38; SnE 1998, II, 319). Cf. Hringaskúta lit. ‘rings’ ship’ in Sturlunga saga (Stu 1946, II, 27) and the mythical name Hringhorni(r) in st. 2/6 above (see Note there). The nautical term is known only from the þulur, where hringr is also a heiti for ‘sword’ (Þul Sverða 7/7) and ‘serpent’ (Þul Orma 2/7). —  Gnóð: Or Gnoð (the length of the vowel ([o] or [o:]) cannot be determined; see LP: Gnóð). Lit. ‘rustling’, referring to the sound a ship makes when sailing. Cf. gnauð ‘rustling noise, murmur’ and the verb gnyðja ‘mutter, grumble’ (AEW: Gnoð). Alternatively, the word could be derived from the verb gnadda ‘murmur’ (ÍO: gnoð). Gnóð is the name of a legendary ship whose owner, Gnóðar-Ásmundr, appears in various fornaldarsögur (e.g. Egils saga einhenda, FSN III, 367, Gríms saga loðinkinna ch. 2, FSN II, 153, etc.), but gnóð/gnoð is also a poetic word for ‘ship’ in general. See Introduction to Anon GnóðÁsm, Anon Mhkv 8/5, Eskál Vell 5/4I and Note to Sigv Knútdr 5/5I. —  freki (m.) ‘greedy one’: Or ‘bold one’ (so SnE 1998, II, 279). As a term for ‘ship’, the word occurs only in the present þula and may originally have been a proper name. Freki is one of Óðinn’s wolves in Old Norse myth, and in the þulur freki is also listed among the heiti for ‘wolf’ (Þul Vargs 1/5) and ‘fire’ (Þul Elds 3/1). —  hrǫð (f.) ‘swift one’: So A, B. The heiti is known only from this þula and could be a f. form of the adj. hraðr ‘swift’. The R, Tˣ C redaction has hrauð, which, according to Kock (NN §847B), may be derived from Gmc *hreuþ- : hrauþ- ‘cover’ (see hrauð ‘mail-shirt’, Þul Brynju l. 2). Alternatively, it could be related to the strong verb hrjóða ‘strip, clear, disable’, possibly denoting a ship in naval battle (hence ‘plunderer’; cf. ÍO: hrauð 2). —  móðrói (m.) ‘fierce-rower’: The meaning of this cpd, which is not attested elsewhere, is uncertain. The first element may be related to móðr ‘wrath’ (in compounds móð- ‘fierce’; see CVC: móðr) or to the adj. móðr ‘weary, exhausted’. The second element is most likely an agent noun derived from the strong verb róa ‘row’. Alternatively, the heiti could mean ‘one rowing in mist or in muddy water’ (if the first element is from móða f. ‘muddy water, mist’; see ÍO: móðrói, móðþrói). —  hemlir (m.) ‘rowlock-strapped one’: A term not attested elsewhere (see SnE 1998, II, 307) and derived from hamla ‘rowlock, oar-loop’ (st. 8/2). Cf. hǫmlungr ‘oar-strapped one’ (st. 2/3 above). —  barði (m.) ‘beaked one’: The word may refer to a ship whose stem (barð) was strengthened for ramming (cf. OE barda ‘beaked ship’). So Falk (1912, 37-8) and SnE 1998, II, 239, but see Jesch (2001a, 159). In the present list barði may have been included as a proper name, cf. Barði (or Járnbarði), the warship owned by Eiríkr jarl Hákonarson (Hkr, ÍF 26, 359-61, 364; Jómsvíkinga saga ch. 31, Jvs 1962, 35). See also Note to Hók Eirfl 3/5I and hélugbarði ‘rimy-prowed’ (st. 2/4 above). —  hylbauti (m.) ‘depth-beater’: The first element of this heiti, which occurs only here, is hylr m. ‘deep pool’ and the second is related to the verb bauta ‘beat’. —  ugla (f.): As a heiti for ‘ship’ the word occurs only in the present list. It could be the same word as ugla ‘owl’, but that connection is uncertain and would be difficult to explain, unless, as some other heiti in this þula, ugla was the proper name of a ship (cf. Trani ‘Crane’, the name of one of King Óláfr Tryggvason’s warships). According to ÍO: ug(g)la 3, the heiti is related to uggla ‘hook’ and denotes a part of a ship (i.e. the fastening or batten on a ship; so SnE 1998, II, 416), but the single consonant in ugla (so all ms.) is difficult to explain. —  leðja (f.) ‘lighter’: The term occurs only in this þula and could be a loanword from Old Slavonic ladii ‘barge’ (see also Note to st. 4/3 below). ModEngl. lighter is a large open boat used in loading and unloading ships (OED: lighter, n.1.), but it is not certain what type of ship ON leðja denoted. —  askvitull (m.): The first element of this cpd, which is not found elsewhere, is from askr ‘ash’ (see askr ‘ash-ship’ in st. 1/4 above), but the second element is obscure and its exact meaning cannot be ascertained. —  kœna (f.) ‘dinghy’: In Old Norse, the name occurs only in this þula, but Kœna is attested as a C12th nickname (see Þskakk Erldr 3/3II). ModIcel. kæna is a small boat with a single oarsman (cf. ON kani ‘vessel, basin’, ODan., MLG kane ‘small boat’). See Falk 1912, 89, Faulkes (1987, 162) and SnE 1998, II, 340. —  ketla (f.): This is a term for a small boat. The word is usually explained as a diminutive of kati (l. 8 below), perhaps influenced by ketill ‘kettle’ (Falk 1912, 88; AEW: ketla; Faulkes 1987, 162; SnE 1998, II, 335). —  kati (m.): A kind of small boat (cf. ModEngl. cat, an old name for a coal and timber vessel on the northeast coast of England (OED: cat, n.2.) and ketla l. 7 above). See ModIcel. kati ‘small wooden trough’and LG kat ‘small slender vessel’ (AEW, Fritzner: kati; Falk 1912, 88). —  reið (f.) ‘vehicle’: In prose, reið means ‘chariot, wagon’, and it is attested in poetry as a base-word in kennings for ‘ship’ (LP: 1. reið 1-2). See also Falk (1912, 86-7). —  Skalpr: Lit. ‘hollowed out’ or ‘vaulted’ (SnE 1998, II, 506; AEW: skalpr). This is the name of a ship owned by Hallvarðr af Sástǫðum in Sv (ch. 159, ÍF 30, 243). Cf. also the ship Gestaskálprinn in Bǫgl (chs 11, 16, Bǫgl 1988, II, 64, 98). Otherwise the word is found only as a term for ‘scabbard’.
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