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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þul Manna 8III

Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Manna heiti 8’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 783.

Anonymous ÞulurManna heiti

text and translation

Ái ok áttungr,         afi, sonr, faðir,
bróðir, barmi,         blóði ok lifri,
jóð, burr, nefi         ok arfuni;
þá eru hlýrar         ok hǫfuðbaðmar.

Ái ok áttungr, afi, sonr, faðir, bróðir, barmi, blóði ok lifri, jóð, burr, nefi ok arfuni; þá eru hlýrar ok hǫfuðbaðmar.
‘Great-grandfather and kinsman, grandfather, son, father, brother, bosom-brother, consanguinean and cognate, baby, son, nephew and inheritor; then there are twins and agnates.

notes and context

Most of the terms of kinship mentioned in this and the following stanzas, as well as various names for friends in st. 7, are also listed in the section of Skm dealing with the so-called viðkenningar (antonomasia) or fornǫfn (‘pronomina, substitutions’). Cf. Skm (SnE 1998, I, 107): Þat eru viðkenningarat kalla hann þess er hann nefndi fǫður eða afa; ái er hinn þriði. Heitir ok sonr ok arfi, arfuni, barn, jóð ok mǫgrHeitir ok bróðir blóði, barmi, hlýri, lifri. Heitir ok niðr nefi, áttungr, konr, kundr, frændiniðjungr, ættstuðill, ættbarmr, kynkvísl, ættbogiafspringr, hǫfuðbaðmr, ofskǫpt. Heita ok mágar sifjungar ‘These are antonomasia … to call someone father or grandfather of the one who was named; the third is great-grandfather. [A relative] is also called a son and heir, inheritor, child, baby and boy … A brother is also called a consanguinean, bosom-brother, twin, cognate. A relative is also called a nephew, kinsman, kin, kinsman, relation … descendant, family-pillar, issue, kin-branch, family line … offspring, agnate, lineage. In-laws are also called affines’. For the term antonomasia, see General Introduction in SkP I. The following terms are not otherwise attested in poetry: ái ‘great-grandfather’ (l. 1), afi ‘grandfather’ (l. 2) and arfuni ‘inheritor’ (l. 6).



Text is based on reconstruction from the base text and variant apparatus and may contain alternative spellings and other normalisations not visible in the manuscript text. Transcriptions may not have been checked and should not be cited.

editions and texts

Skj: Anonyme digte og vers [XII], IV. j. Manna heiti 8: AI, 661, BI, 662, Skald I, 327; SnE 1848-87, I, 561, II, 475, 558, 618, SnE 1931, 199, SnE 1998, I, 117.    


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