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Hǫfuðlausn — Ótt HflI

Óttarr svarti

Matthew Townend 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Óttarr svarti, Hǫfuðlausn’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 739.

 

Óttarr svarti’s Hǫfuðlausn ‘Head-ransom’ (Ótt Hfl), in honour of King Óláfr Haraldsson of Norway (r. c. 1015-30), is predominantly preserved in Snorri Sturluson’s Óláfs saga helga in both the Separate version (ÓH) and Hkr version (ÓHHkr). A few stanzas or helmingar are also preserved in ÓHÆ, ÓHLeg, Fsk, Knýtl, Orkn, SnE and FGT; indeed, st. 8/5-8 comprise four out of only six lines cited in FGT. The poem’s preservation in such a wide variety of sources suggests it was Óttarr’s best-known work. There seems little reason to question the traditional assumption that all the twenty stanzas now extant belong to one and the same poem by Óttarr for Óláfr. They are all in standard dróttkvætt metre, and some (e.g. sts 1/7-8, 2/3-4, 3/7-8, 4/3-4) show the use of dunhent or dunhenda ‘echoing-rhymed’, in which the stem of the last word of the odd line is repeated as the first word of the following even line (cf. SnSt Ht 24III; see further Hollander 1946, 906-7), or of similar effects. However, sts 17-19 lack the use of dunhent found in the earlier stanzas, as well as having a somewhat different focus, as does st. 20, and so it is at least conceivable that they do not belong in Hfl.

There are relatively few problems in terms of establishing the sequence of stanzas, with the principal exception of st. 5, which is preserved without narrative context in SnE. Skj (followed by Skald) places this at the end of the poem, but clearly it must belong with one of the sections concerned with Óláfr’s sea-voyages. Its position in this edition as st. 5 must inevitably be hypothetical, though its description of a storm-tossed voyage fits well with the preceding st. 4; an alternative position might be between sts 14 and 15. Fidjestøl (1982, 124) alternatively suggests the two stray helmingar 5 and 6 might have formed a stanza together. The place of st. 13 in Óláfr’s career and in the poem can be established on historical grounds despite discrepant placing in sagas and in modern editions: see Note to st. 13 [All].

All the stanzas printed here are attributed to Óttarr, except that st. 20 is attributed to ‘Arnórr’ in U. As to the title, although all but one of the stanzas are preserved in works by Snorri (st. 1 is the exception), it is striking that Snorri never calls the poem Hǫfuðlausn, but simply (ÍF 27, 172) drápu þeiri, er hann orti um Óláf konung ‘the drápa which he [Óttarr] composed about King Óláfr’. As for their personal relations, Snorri (ÍF 27, 191) reports that, following the death of his patron King Óláfr Eiríksson of Sweden (c. 1021), Óttarr came to Óláfr Haraldsson at the Sóleyjar (Solør) islands and asked to enter into his service. Óttarr’s uncle Sigvatr Þórðarson was already a member of Óláfr’s court, and Óttarr seems to have joined him there; Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 253, 261) lists Óttarr among Óláfr’s poets. For the entire ‘head-ransom’ dimension, we have to turn to sources other than Snorri, to the Óláfr tradition represented by ÓHÆ, ÓHLeg and Styrmir Kárason’s Lífssaga, which is also the body of tradition that preserves the three lausavísur attributed to Óttarr (Ótt Lv 1-3). Styrmir’s Article 7 in Flat (printed as Article 10 in ÓH 1941, II, 688-9) tells that Óttarr composed a mansǫngsdrápa ‘love-song drápa’ about Ástríðr, the daughter of Óláfr Eiríksson and the wife of Óláfr Haraldsson. This greatly displeased Óláfr Haraldsson, and when Óttarr came to Norway Óláfr had him placed in a dungeon, with the intention of killing him. However, Sigvatr (here presented only as Óttarr’s friend, not his relative) encouraged Óttarr to compose a praise-poem for Óláfr, which Óttarr did within three nights, and the recitation of this poem before Óláfr and the court effected the necessary reconciliation between the poet and the king: sia drapa er kollud Hofudlausn er Ottar orti vm Olaf konung fyrir þui at Ottar þa hofud sitt fra bana at kuædis launum ‘that poem is called Head-ransom which Óttarr composed about King Óláfr because Óttarr saved his head as a reward for the poem’ (ÓH 1941, II, 689; also in Flat 1860-8, III, 243). Versions of this story are also told in the redactions of ÓH in Bæb, Bb, and Tóm (printed in ÓH 1941, II, 702-6), and Tóm (uniquely) quotes the whole of st. 1 in the process, while briefer accounts, together with st. 1/1, occur in ÓHÆ and ÓHLeg. The ‘head-ransom’ story is a widespread narrative pattern (Nordland 1956), and two other skaldic poems with the title Hǫfuðlausn survive, by Egill Skallagrímsson (Egill HflV) and Þórarinn loftunga (Þloft Hfl, only one couplet extant).

On Óttarr’s narrative technique see Jesch (2006b). In composing this poem (which is here referred to as Hǫfuðlausn, in spite of Snorri’s silence) Óttarr clearly drew extensively on Sigvatr’s Víkingarvísur (Sigv Víkv), which celebrate the young Óláfr’s viking expeditions overseas (see Grove 2009); the greater part of Óttarr’s poem is accordingly concerned with Óláfr’s youthful campaigns (on which see Johnsen 1916). After a call for a hearing (sts 1-2), Óttarr details Óláfr’s adventures in Denmark, Sweden, and the Baltic (sts 3-7, cf. Víkv 1-3, with a return west in sts 4, 5), England (sts 8-11, cf. Víkv 6-9), France (st. 12, cf. Víkv 10-14, set in France and Spain), and England again (st. 13), before turning to his conquest of Norway (sts 14-18, cf. Víkv 15) and his present pre-eminence (sts 19-20); cf. Notes to sts 8, 12 and 13 [All] for comment on historical content. In the account of Óláfr’s early campaigns, especially in England, Óttarr no doubt exaggerates the importance of his role enormously; where we have other (non-Scandinavian) sources to compare for these events, only one mentions Óláfr at all (see Note to st. 12 [All]). What Óttarr’s Hfl offers us, then, is a lengthy praise-poem in honour of Óláfr from the time of his most secure rule in Norway, and it thus has much to tell us about Óláfr’s position, reputation, and self-perception in the early 1020s, as well as about his early career.

Since the majority of stanzas are preserved in ÓH and Hkr, the leading Hkr ms. has been selected here as the main ms. (for sts 3, 4, 6-20), though for certain stanzas (sts 4, 10, 15 and 17) a slightly better reading is preserved in Holm2 (the leading ms. of the A class of ÓH mss). For the stanzas preserved only in SnE (sts 2 and 5) R has been selected as main ms., and Tóm, unusually, for st. 1 since it has the only complete text; this is supplemented by 761bˣ (see Note to st. 1 [All]). The ÓH mss used are: Holm2, 325V, Flat, Tóm for sts 3, 4, 6, 7, 8/1-4, 9-20, plus J, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VI, 75a, 321ˣ, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, 68, 61, Holm4, 75c, 325VII and 325XI 2 i for subsets of these. The Óláfs saga helga text in the Jöfraskinna transcripts J1ˣ, J2ˣ belongs to the ÓH rather than Hkr redaction, except that for sts 18/8 and 19, J2ˣ and the vellum fragment J have text belonging to the Hkr redaction; see Note to st. 19 [All]. The Bb text of Hfl belongs to the ÓH redaction except that for sts 17-20 it follows a Hkr ms.; see Note to st. 17 [All]. The remaining mss used are: the ÓHÆ ms. NRA52 for st. 1/1 only; the ÓHLeg ms. DG8 for sts 1/1 and 20; the Fsk mss FskAˣ, FskBˣ for sts 13, 20; JÓ (the 1741 edition of Knýtl) and the Knýtl mss 20dˣ, 873ˣ for st. 13; the Orkn mss 332ˣ, Flat for st. 20; the SnE mss R, , A, B, C for sts 2 (twice in R, , W), 5, 20/5-8, plus U, W for subsets of these and 744ˣ to supplement B where it is badly damaged in sts 5 and 20/5-8; and finally the FGT ms. W for st. 8/5-8.

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. SnE 1848-87 = Snorri Sturluson. 1848-87. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar: Edda Snorronis Sturlaei. Ed. Jón Sigurðsson et al. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Legatum Arnamagnaeanum. Rpt. Osnabrück: Zeller, 1966.
  3. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  4. Fidjestøl, Bjarne. 1982. Det norrøne fyrstediktet. Universitet i Bergen Nordisk institutts skriftserie 11. Øvre Ervik: Alvheim & Eide.
  5. Flat 1860-8 = Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and C. R. Unger, eds. 1860-8. Flateyjarbók. En samling af norske konge-sagaer med indskudte mindre fortællinger om begivenheder i og udenfor Norge samt annaler. 3 vols. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  6. ÓH 1941 = Johnsen, Oscar Albert and Jón Helgason, eds. 1941. Saga Óláfs konungs hins helga: Den store saga om Olav den hellige efter pergamenthåndskrift i Kungliga biblioteket i Stockholm nr. 2 4to med varianter fra andre håndskrifter. 2 vols. Det norske historiske kildeskriftfond skrifter 53. Oslo: Dybwad.
  7. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  8. Johnsen, Oscar Albert. 1916. Olav Haraldssons ungdom indtil slaget ved Nesjar. Kristiania [Oslo]: Dybwad.
  9. Grove, Jonathan. 2009. ‘Recreating Tradition: Sigvatr Þórðarson’s Víkingarvísur and Óttarr svarti’s Hǫfuðlausn’. In Ney et al. 2009, I, 327-35.
  10. Jesch, Judith. 2006b. ‘The “Meaning of the Narrative Moment”: Poets and History in the Late Viking Age’. In Tyler et al. 2006, 251-65.
  11. Hollander, Lee M. 1946. ‘Observations on Skaldic Rime Usage with Special Reference to the dunhent and liðhent Varieties of dróttkvætt’. PMLA 61, 891-909.
  12. Nordland, Odd. 1956. Hǫfuðlausn i Egils saga: Ein tradisjonskritisk studie. Oslo: Norske Samlaget.
  13. Internal references
  14. Edith Marold 2017, ‘Snorra Edda (Prologue, Gylfaginning, Skáldskaparmál)’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  15. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Heimskringla (Hkr)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  16. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘The Legendary Saga of S. Óláfr / Helgisaga Óláfs konungs Haraldssonar (ÓHLeg)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. clxxiii.
  17. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘Flateyjarbók (Flat)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clxi-clxii.
  18. Not published: do not cite (EgillV)
  19. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Orkneyinga saga (Orkn)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  20. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘The Separate Saga of S. Óláfr / Óláfs saga helga in sérstaka (ÓH)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clxxvi-clxxix.
  21. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘Fagrskinna (Fsk)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clix-clxi.
  22. Not published: do not cite (ÓHHkrI)
  23. Matthew Townend 2017, ‘(Biography of) Óttarr svarti’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 335.
  24. Judith Jesch 2017, ‘(Biography of) Sigvatr Þórðarson’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 347.
  25. Matthew Townend 2012, ‘(Biography of) Þórarinn loftunga’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 848.
  26. Not published: do not cite (Egill HflV (Eg))
  27. Judith Jesch 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Sigvatr Þórðarson, Víkingarvísur’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 532.
  28. Matthew Townend 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Þórarinn loftunga, Hǫfuðlausn’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 849.
  29. Matthew Townend (ed.) 2012, ‘Óttarr svarti, Lausavísur 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 784.
  30. Judith Jesch (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Víkingarvísur 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 534.
  31. Judith Jesch (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Víkingarvísur 10’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 548.
  32. Judith Jesch (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Víkingarvísur 15’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 554.
  33. Judith Jesch (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Víkingarvísur 6’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 541.
  34. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2017, ‘Snorri Sturluson, Háttatal 24’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1130.
  35. Not published: do not cite ()
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