The three stanzas below (Anon Þorgþ I
), which enumerate names of mythical and legendary horses, some with their riders, is a fragment of a poem called Þorgrímsþula
’ transmitted in mss R (main ms.), Tˣ
, U, A, C of SnE
) as well as in papp10ˣ
. The names of all the horses are also given in RE 1665(Gg), but that list is clearly based on a ms. of LaufE
and has no independent value. In SnE
, Þorgþ I
is recorded in the section of Skm
which discusses poetic names (heiti
) for various concepts. There it is the first of two blocks of stanzas containing horse-heiti
and it is followed by another anonymous poem, Kálfsvísa
(Anon Kálfv 1
-4). In all of the extant mss except U the introduction to the stanzas gives the name of the poem (e.g. ms. R, SnE 1998
, I, 88
): þessi eru hesta heiti í Þorgrímsþulu
‘these are the horse-names in Þorgrímr’s þula
’. Ms. U only has a rubric, which also mentions the preceding heiti
for ‘stag’: fra hirti ok hesta nofnvm agietvm
‘about the stag and splendid names of horses’, with a space left directly before the beginning of Þorgþ I
. In LaufE
, the þula
is introduced by the clauses Hesta heiti eru þessi talin j Þorgrims þulu
‘These names of horses are enumerated in Þorgrímr’s þula
) and Hesta heiti talinn j Þorgrijms þulu
‘Names of horses enumerated in Þorgrímr’s þula
; closely similar in 743ˣ
). Although the poem is anonymous, Finnur Jónsson (LH
II, 175) believes that its title may contain the poet’s name, and he argues that this Þorgrímr was an Icelander, but nothing further is known either about the poem or about its authorship. However, since the enumeration of horse-heiti
is followed in Skm
by a stanza containing another poetic list of heiti
for ‘oxen’, which, as stated in mss R, Tˣ
and C, was also taken from Þorgrímsþula
(see Anon Þorgþ II
), it is likely that both fragments cited in Skm
belong to a lost poem of undetermined subject and size. On the term þula
and the so-called þulur
, i.e. versified lists of names, see Introduction to Anon Þulur
. In the present edition, many of the translations of the horses’ names follow Faulkes (1987
, 136). In Skj BII, 610
the metre of the poem is given as málaháttr
, but in LH
II, 175 Finnur Jónsson describes it as ljóðaháttr
. The latter is more accurate because, even though st. 1 is a mixture of málaháttr
(ll. 1-4) and ljóðaháttr
(ll. 5-7), sts 2-3 are composed in ljóðaháttr
with a third and sixth full line with internal alliteration.
- Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
- Faulkes, Anthony, trans. 1987. Snorri Sturluson. Edda. Everyman’s Library. London and Rutland, Vermont: J. M. Dent & Sons and Charles E. Tuttle Co., Inc. Rpt. with new chronology and synopsis 2005.
- LH = Finnur Jónsson. 1920-4. Den oldnorske og oldislandske litteraturs historie. 3 vols. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Gad.
- SnE 1998 = Snorri Sturluson. 1998. Edda: Skáldskaparmál. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2 vols. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
- Internal references
- Edith Marold 2017, ‘Snorra Edda (Prologue, Gylfaginning, Skáldskaparmál)’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
- Not published: do not cite (SkmIII)
- Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Kálfsvísa 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 664.
- Elena Gurevich 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Þorgrímsþula II’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 675.
- Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Laufás Edda (LaufE)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].