Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Note to ESk Hardr II 3II

[2] geitunga ‘birds’: Given as a heiti for ‘bird’ in Þul Fugla 1/5III. In ModIcel. geitungur means ‘wasp’ (cf. Dan. dialects geding ‘wasp’). The word is formed from ON geit ‘goat’, most likely because the feelers of a wasp looked like horns, and the term then came to be understood as denoting some type of bird (see AEW: geitungr; LP: geitungr).


  1. Bibliography
  2. AEW = Vries, Jan de. 1962. Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. 2nd rev. edn. Rpt. 1977. Leiden: Brill.
  3. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  4. Internal references
  5. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Fugla heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 952.


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