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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Note to ÞjóðA Sex 1II

[3] brennir Bolgara ‘the burner of Bulgars [= Haraldr]’: An anticipatory reference to Haraldr’s campaigns in the service of the Byzantine emperor. The Bulgars, associated in the C11th with the Albigensian heresy, would have been perceived (like the pagan Wends) as suitable targets of a Christian monarch. Frank (1978, 124) suggests the nickname of Emperor Basil II Bulgaroctonus (‘Slaughterer of Bulgars’, 976-1025) as a possible model for the kenning.


  1. Bibliography
  2. Frank, Roberta. 1978. Old Norse Court Poetry: The Dróttkvætt Stanza. Islandica 42. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.


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