factus esto ‘may you be made’: Esto appears to be the 2nd pers. sg. future imp. of esse ‘to be’, but might also be interpreted as the more common 3rd pers. sg. ‘let him be’, anticipating the prayer of the second helmingr. Kålund, on the advice of M. C. Gertz, emended to es tu (auxiliary + 2nd pers. pron.), producing a 2nd pers. perf. passive construction ‘you have been made’ (AÍ III, 64). This accords with his interpretation of the st. as an expression of praise for some honour already received by the dedicatee, but the pron. tu is syntactically superfluous. Cf. Anon Eccl 2/1 esto purus.