Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Note to Anon Eccl 1VII

[3] factus esto ‘may you be made’: Esto appears to be the 2nd pers. sg. future imp. of esse ‘to be’, but might also be interpreted as the more common 3rd pers. sg. ‘let him be’, anticipating the prayer of the second helmingr. Kålund, on the advice of M. C. Gertz, emended to es tu (auxiliary + 2nd pers. pron.), producing a 2nd pers. perf. passive construction ‘you have been made’ ( III, 64). This accords with his interpretation of the st. as an expression of praise for some honour already received by the dedicatee, but the pron. tu is syntactically superfluous. Cf. Anon Eccl 2/1 esto purus.


  1. Bibliography
  2. = Kålund, Kristian and Natanael Beckman. 1908-18. Alfræði íslenzk: Islandsk encyklopædisk litteratur. 3 vols. SUGNL 37, 41 and 45. Copenhagen: Møller.
  3. Internal references
  4. Jonathan Grove (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Stanzas Addressed to Fellow Ecclesiastics 2’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 474-5.


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