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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Note to AngH Lv 11VIII (Heiðr 119)

[4] norna ‘of the norns’: The norns are supernatural females representing fate or destiny in Old Norse mythology; cf. Hamð 30/5-6 (NK 274) qveld lifir maðr ecci | eptir qvið norna ‘a person doesn’t live for a night after the norns’ decree’. They need not always signify ill fate, as they do in the present stanza: Gylf (SnE 2005, 18) explains that there are both malevolent norns, who deal out unfortunate lives, and good norns, who shape good lives.


  1. Bibliography
  2. NK = Neckel, Gustav and Hans Kuhn (1899), eds. 1983. Edda: Die Lieder des Codex Regius nebst verwandten Denkmälern. 2 vols. I: Text. 5th edn. Heidelberg: Winter.
  3. SnE 2005 = Snorri Sturluson. 2005. Edda: Prologue and Gylfaginning. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2nd edn. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  4. Internal references
  5. Not published: do not cite (GylfIII)
  6. Not published: do not cite ()


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