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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Note to Þul Spjóts 1III

[7] frakka (f.) ‘Frankish [spear]’: Most likely a loanword from OE franca ‘lance, javelin’. It is possible that this term might have been identical with framea in Tacitus’ Germania (ch. 6; see Falk 1914b, 75). Other than in the present þula, the only reliable attestation in Old Norse is found in 35/8 (NK 285) frǫccor dýia ‘[he began] to shake Frankish spears’. Cf. also the weak m. form frakki in the cpd hræfrakki ‘carrion-spear’ (Þul Sverða 2/8).


  1. Bibliography
  2. NK = Neckel, Gustav and Hans Kuhn (1899), eds. 1983. Edda: Die Lieder des Codex Regius nebst verwandten Denkmälern. 2 vols. I: Text. 5th edn. Heidelberg: Winter.
  3. Falk, Hjalmar. 1914b. Altnordische Waffenkunde. Videnskapsselskapets skrifter, II. Hist.-filos. kl. 1914, 6. Kristiania (Oslo): Dybwad.
  4. Internal references
  5. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Sverða heiti 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 791.
  6. Not published: do not cite ()
  7. Not published: do not cite ()


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