Ô in helga ‘Helgeå’: The battle here took place in (probably) 1026, when the Swedish and Norwegian forces of Ǫnundr Óláfsson and Óláfr Haraldsson launched an attack on Knútr’s Denmark. The site of the battle has traditionally been identified as Helgeå, in the eastern part of Skåne, but a site in Uppland has also been suggested (Gräslund 1986). The outcome of the battle is also somewhat unclear. From one point of view, since the attack on Denmark was unsuccessful, Knútr was clearly the ‘victor’; but the battle itself may well have been inconclusive, and the ASC (‘E’) s. a. 1025 even reports a Swedish victory. See further Moberg (1941, 148-78); Moberg (1987); Moberg (1989); Lawson (1993, 96-100); P. Sawyer (1994, 18-19).
- ASC [Anglo-Saxon Chronicle] = Plummer, Charles and John Earle, eds. 1892-9. Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon. Rpt. 1952.
- Moberg, Ove. 1941. Olav Haraldsson, Knut den Store och Sverige: Studier i Olav den heliges förhållande till de nordiska grannländerna. Lund: Gleerup.
- Lawson, M. K. 1993. Cnut: The Danes in England in the Early Eleventh Century. London: Longman.
- Moberg, Ove. 1989. ‘The Battle of Helgeå’. Scandinavian Journal of History 14, 1-19.
- Sawyer, Peter. 1994. ‘Cnut’s Scandinavian Empire’. In Rumble 1994, 10-22.
- Gräslund, Bo. 1986. ‘Knut den store och sveariket: Slaget vid Helgeå i ny belysning’. Scandia 52, 211-38.
- Moberg, Lennart. 1987. ‘Slaget vid Helgeå och dess följder’. Scandia 53, 175-85.