skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search
Vol. II. Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: from c. 1035 to c. 1300 8. Introduction 4. Sources for Skaldic Poetry Cited in the Kings' Sagas 1. Sagas of the kings of Norway after 1035 4. Hákonar saga Hákonarsonar (Hák)

4. Hákonar saga Hákonarsonar (Hák)

Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Hákonar saga Hákonarsonar (Hák)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].

Stemma

The relations between the manuscripts of Hák are complicated, and scholars have not been able to establish a satisfactory stemma (see Hák 1977-82, xii-xiii). A preliminary distinction can be made between the ‘Norwegian’ manuscripts (E, J, F, G/42ˣ) and the ‘Icelandic’ manuscripts (81a, 8/325VIII 5 a/304ˣ, 325VIII 5 b, 325X, Flat), and the order of manuscripts in the editions in SkP II reflects that grouping.

Manuscripts

E:             Eirspennill, AM 47 fol. See Hkr. Hák: 139v-194v.

55 A:       Jöfraskinna, preserved in NRA 55 A (one-leaf fragment). See Hkr.

F:              Fríssbók, Codex Frisianus, AM 45 fol. See Hkr. Hák: 84ra-124rb.

G:             Gullinskinna, preserved in AM 325 VIII 5 c 4° (one-leaf fragment). See Hkr.

42ˣ:          AM 42 folˣ, copy of G. See Hkr. Hák: 82r-177v.

81a:         Skálholtsbók yngsta, AM 81 a fol (Icelandic, c. 1450-75). Hák: 64va-120vb.

8:              Holm perg 8 fol (two scribal teams: to 68v ‘A’ c. 1340-70; 69r-81v ‘B’ c. 1500). Hák: 32v-81v.

325VIII 5 a: AM 325 VIII 5 a 4°. Three leaves originally belonging to 8 (‘A’).

304ˣ:       AM 304 4°ˣ (c. 1600-50 and later, a copy of 8 when it was more complete, though a few leaves were missing from 8 at the time it was copied).

325VIII 5 b: AM 325 VIII 5 b 4° (c. 1300-25). Two leaves.

325X:      AM 325 X 4° (c. 1370). Fragments a little earlier than Flat, but from a codex that was not the exemplar of Flat. Hák: 11ra-12vb.

Flat:         Flateyjarbók, GKS 1005 fol. See separate entry.

Facsimiles and editions: F 1932, AM 81a 1961, Flat 1930; E 1916, F 1871, Hák 1910-86 (= Sv 1910-86), Hák 1977-82, Flat 1860-8, III.

Hák, which was written by the Icelander Sturla Þórðarson (c. 1265; see Sturl Biography), chronicles the life of King Hákon Hákonarson (1204-1263; see ‘Royal Biographies’ below). AM 80 folˣ (80ˣ), another copy of G by Ásgeir Jónsson (end of the C17th), has not been considered in the editions in the present volume. NRA 55 B (55 B), a one-leaf fragment of Hák (c. 1300-25), contains no poetry. Because both Hák and Sv are recorded in 81a, the siglum Hák 1910-86 (a diplomatic edition of 81a) refers to the same edition as Sv 1910-86.

Poetry

The prose text of Hák is at times fairly heavily interspersed with poetry, notably with the poetic compositions of Sturla himself (Sturl Hákkv, Hrafn, Hákfl, Magndr) and of his brother, Óláfr hvítaskáld Þórðarson (Ólhvít Hryn). The saga also contains Gizurr Þorvaldsson’s Hákonardrápa (Giz Hákdr), stanzas from Snorri Sturluson’s Háttatal (SnSt Ht 63-4III), lausavísur (Játg Lv, Ólhvít Lv 1-2, Snæk Lv, SnSt Lv 4IV, GOdd Lv 1IV) and three anonymous stanzas (Anon (Hák) 1-3). Because Sturla relied heavily on eyewitness accounts and written documentation as sources for the prose account of Hák, the poetic citations in the saga are mainly ornamental in nature. The inclusion of the stanzas reflects the convention in the earlier kings’ sagas of using skaldic stanzas to verify the events described in the prose texts, a convention that peaked in such royal compendia as Mork, Fsk and Hkr.


References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Flat 1860-8 = Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and C. R. Unger, eds. 1860-8. Flateyjarbók. En samling af norske konge-sagaer med indskudte mindre fortællinger om begivenheder i og udenfor Norge samt annaler. 3 vols. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  3. F 1871 = Unger, C. R., ed. 1871. Fríssbók: Codex Frisianus. En samling af norske konge-sagaer. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  4. E 1916 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1916. Eirspennill: AM 47 fol. Nóregs konunga sǫgur: Magnús góði – Hákon gamli. Kristiania (Oslo): Den norske historiske kildeskriftskommission.
  5. Flat 1930 = Finnur Jónsson 1930a.
  6. F 1932 = Halldór Hermansson, ed. 1932a. Codex Frisianus. CCI 4. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.
  7. Sv 1910-86 = Kjær, Albert and Ludvig Holm-Olsen, eds. 1910-86. Det Arnamagnæanske haandskrift 81a fol. (Skálholtsbók yngsta) indeholdende Sverris saga, Bǫglungasǫgur, Hákonar saga Hákonarsonar. Oslo: Den norske historiske kildeskriftkommission and Kjeldeskriftfondet.
  8. SkP II = Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Ed. Kari Ellen Gade. 2009.
  9. Internal references
  10. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Sverris saga (Sv)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  11. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Heimskringla (Hkr)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  12. Not published: do not cite (HrafnIV)
  13. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘Fagrskinna (Fsk)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clix-clxi.
  14. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Morkinskinna (Mork)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  15. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2017, ‘Snorri Sturluson, Háttatal 63’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1175.
  16. Not published: do not cite (SnSt Lv 4IV)
Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close