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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Vol. II. Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: from c. 1035 to c. 1300 4. General Abbreviations

4. General Abbreviations

Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘General Abbreviations’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].

Note that sigla for all ON-Icel. poetry, sagas, compendia and þættir referred to in this edn are to be found in the List of sigla, with the exception of abbreviations for poems of the Elder Edda (which are listed below), while abbreviated references to eds, facsimiles and secondary sources are to be found listed in alphabetical order in the Bibliography. All other abbreviations are listed here.

Abbreviations are used in all parts of the edn, except at the beginning of sentences and in most sections of the Introduction. Note that plurals of abbreviated words are written in full, e.g. ‘infinitives’, ‘adverbs’ unless pl. forms are listed below, e.g. ‘ll.’, ‘sts’. Grammatical and Linguistic Abbreviations

acc. — accusative

adj. — adjective

adv. — adverb

cl. — clause

comp. — comparative

conj. — conjunction

cpd — compound

dat. — dative

def. art. — definite article


e-n — einhvern

e-s — einhvers

e-t — eitthvat

e-u — einhverju

f. — feminine

gen. — genitive

imp. — imperative

indef. — indefinite

indic. — indicative

inf. — infinitive

instr. — instrumental

interrog. — interrogative

m. — masculine

m. v. — middle voice, mediopassive

n. — neuter

nom. — nominative

perf. — perfect

pers. n. — personal name

pl. — plural

poss. — possessive

p. n. — place name

p. p. — past participle

prep. — preposition

pres. part. — present participle

pret. — preterite

pron. — pronoun

refl. — reflexive

rel. — relative

sg. — singular

subj. — subjunctive

sup. — superlative

1st pers. — first person

2nd pers. — second person

3rd pers. — third person Abbreviations for Languages and Nationalities

Dan. — Danish

Engl. — English

Ger. — German

Gk — Greek

Gmc — Germanic

Goth. — Gothic

Icel. — Icelandic

Lat. — Latin

ME — Middle English

MHG — Middle High German

MIr. — Middle Irish

MLat. — Medieval Latin

MLG — Middle Low German

ModDan. — Modern Danish

ModIcel. — Modern Icelandic

ModNorw. — Modern Norwegian

ModSwed. — Modern Swedish

New Norw. — New Norwegian (nynorsk)

Norw. — Norwegian

ODan. — Old Danish

OE — Old English

OFr. — Old French

OHG — Old High German

OIcel. — Old Icelandic

OIr. — Old Irish

ON — Old Norse (used where differentiation between individual early Nordic [norrœn] — languages is not necessary or possible)

ONorw. Old Norwegian

OS — Old Saxon

OSwed. — Old Swedish Abbreviated References to Poems of the Elder Edda in SkP II

Akv — Atlakviða

Am — Atlamál

Bdr — Baldrs draumar

Fáfn — Fáfnismál

Grí — Grímnismál

Gríp — Grípisspá

Grott — Grottasǫngr

Guðr I — Guðrúnarkviða I

Guðr II — Guðrúnarkviða II

Ghv — Guðrúnarhvǫt

Hamð — Hamðismál

Hárb — Hárbarðsljóð

Hávm — Hávamál

HHund I — Helgakviða Hundingsbana I

HHj — Helgakviða Hjǫrvarðssonar

Hyndl — Hyndluljóð

Lok — Lokasenna

Reg — Reginsmál

Sigrdr — Sigrdrífumál

Sigsk  Sigurðarkviða in skamma Other Abbreviations and Notations

ÁM — Árni Magnússon

c. — circa

C10th — tenth century (and similarly for references to other centuries)

ch. — chapter

chs — chapters

d. — died

ed. — editor, edited (by)

edn — edition

eds — editors, editions

fol. — folio

fols — folios

hap. leg.hapax legomenon (pl. legomena)—unique word(s)

l. — line

ll. — lines

lit. — literally (used in translations [italicised] and notes [roman])

lv. — lausavísa

lvv. — lausavísur

ms. — manuscript

mss — manuscripts

n. — note (but e.g. Anm. if notes are labelled as such in the source)

nn. — notes

no. — number

nos — numbers

p. — page

pp. — pages

r. — reigned (of regnal dates of kings, earls, etc.)

S. — Saint

s. a.sub anno ‘under year’—for references to materials in annals

sby — somebody

st. — stanza

sth. — something

sts — stanzas

v. — verse

vv. — verses

vol. — volume

vols — volumes

w. o. — word order

* — reconstructed form, e.g. hypothetical etymon, no longer extant ms.

† — obelos symbol for textual material that is impossibly corrupt or cannot be made sense of. One † is placed immediately before the beginning of the piece of corrupt text and another immediately after it.


  1. Bibliography
  2. SkP II = Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Ed. Kari Ellen Gade. 2009.
  3. Internal references
  4. Not published: do not cite ()
  5. Not published: do not cite ()

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