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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Vol. I. Poetry for Scandinavian Rulers 1: From Mythological Times to c. 1035 8. Volume Introduction 4. Biographies 4.1. Ruler biographies 4.1.a. Kings and jarls of Norway 10. Óláfr I Tryggvason (r. c. 995-c. 1000)

10. Óláfr I Tryggvason (r. c. 995-c. 1000)

Óláfr Tryggvason was born c. 968, the son of Tryggvi Óláfsson, a petty king in south-eastern Norway, and Ástríðr Eiríksdóttir. According to the sagas Óláfr was also the great-grandson of Haraldr hárfagri (q. v.), though some doubt has been expressed about this (Krag 2002; Krag 2003a). Tryggvi was killed by the Eiríkssynir (see Biography of Haraldr gráfeldr above) shortly before Óláfr was born, and the boy is said to have grown up in hiding, first in eastern Norway and Sweden, then in Hólmgarðr (Novgorod) under the protection of Valdamarr (Vladimir, r. 970-1015). For the tradition of Óláfr’s fostering in Garðar (Russia), see Note to HSt Rst 2/2, and for questioning of this, see Introduction to HSt Frag 1. What is relatively certain (not least from Hfr Óldr) is that he spent his youth as a highly successful viking in the Baltic, northern Europe and the British Isles. The Anlaf who features in the ASC s. a. 991 and 994, winning Danegeld alongside the Danish king Sveinn tjúguskegg (q. v.), is probably to be identified with Óláfr. The ASC says that Óláfr accepted Christian baptism from the English King Æthelred in 994 and promised never to raid England again. He set out for Norway in 995 well resourced and with a strong army, and was acclaimed king in Þrándheimr (Trøndelag), where a rebellion had already undermined the power of Hákon jarl Sigurðarson (q. v).

Between 996 and 999 Óláfr Christianized, and extended his power over, the coastal areas of western Norway. He is credited with the founding of churches (see Krag 2003b, 192), strategic marriages including that of his sister Ástríðr to the Rogaland chieftain Erlingr Skjálgsson (see ‘Biographies of other dignitaries’ below) and targeted killings, included that of Járn-Skeggi, possibly his father-in-law. He sent the German missionary Þangbrandr to Iceland, and the Icelanders accepted Christianity at the Alþingi c. 1000. Early prose sources say Óláfr converted Shetland, Orkney and the Faroes, and twelfth-century skalds add Greenland, but probably in error (on the conversion of Scandinavia, see Sawyer 1987).

Óláfr’s ambitions brought him into conflict with powerful enemies, an alliance of whom brought his short reign to an end. Óláfr’s hold on Vík (Viken) threatened the overlordship of Sveinn tjúguskegg, and Óláfr appears to have sided with the Wends rather than the Danes in the Baltic. Eiríkr jarl Hákonarson (q. v.), exiled son of the murdered Hákon jarl, aspired to reclaim his family lands in Trøndelag, together with his brother Sveinn jarl Hákonarson (q. v.); Eiríkr was married to Sveinn tjúguskegg’s daughter Gyða. Moreover, Óláfr sœnski ‘the Swede’ Eiríksson, Sveinn tjúguskegg’s stepson and ruler of the Svíar (Svear), was interested in extending his power in Gautland (Västergötland; Andersen 1977, 104). The result was the famous battle of Svǫlðr, in 1000 or possibly 999; the prose sources agree on September, specifying the 9th (which came to be widely celebrated as Óláfr’s anniversary), 10th or 11th (ÍF 25, 352 n.). Óláfr fought a spirited defence from his flagship Ormr inn langi ‘the Long Serpent’, but Sveinn, Eiríkr and Óláfr sœnski defeated him and his Gautish and Wendish allies. The location of the battle is the subject of a classic debate in Scandinavian historiography: it is placed either off the southern Baltic coast, or in the Øresund between Sjælland and Skåne (for summaries see Andersen 1977, 104-5; McDougall and McDougall 1998, 74-5; Rasmussen 2000; Andersson 2003, 147; and see Notes to Hfr ErfÓl 4/6 and Skúli Svǫlðr 2/7III). The name Svǫlðr is sometimes given in modern sources as Svolder but in the absence of a secure identification ‘Svǫlðr’ is used throughout this volume. Legends sprang up very soon after the battle of how Óláfr had miraculously escaped by swimming underwater and had travelled to the Holy Land. Óláfr is credited with marriages to the daughter of Járn-Skeggi (mentioned above) and to three princesses, but only a minor role in the subsequent history was played by the man claiming to be his son Tryggvi (see Sigv Tryggfl; Anon Sveinfl). After Svǫlðr, Norway was under Danish overlordship until 1015, with the jarls of Hlaðir (Lade) Eiríkr Hákonarson and Sveinn Hákonarson controlling the major part (the western coast and its hinterland). See Anon Nkt 19-22II (c. 1190); Theodoricus (MHN 13-21; McDougall and McDougall 1998, 10-18); HN (MHN 111-19; Kunin and Phelpstead 2001, 18-23); Ágr (ÍF 29, 19-24; Ágr 2008, 26-35); Fsk (ÍF 29, 141-162; Finlay 2004, 112-29); ÓTOdd (ÍF 25, 125-362); ÓTHkr (ÍF 26, 225-372; Hollander 1964a, 144-244); ÓT 1958-2000, I-III. According to Skáldatal (SnE 1848-87, III, 253, 261, 274), Hallfreðr vandræðaskald (Hfr) and Bjarni skáld (BjHall, specified as gullbrárskáld in U) were Óláfr’s poets. Ms. U also adds Gizurr gullbrá (probably Gizurr svarti or gullbrárskald, Gizsv) and Sigvatr skald (presumably Þórðarson, Sigv), while one redaction of ÓTOdd (ÍF 25, 370, 372) claims one ‘Sóti skald’ as an additional poetic source for Óláfr’s last moments. Only Hallfreðr’s poetry survives, though HSt Rst 34/8 credits ‘Bjarni’ with a drápa for Óláfr; there is no other evidence that Gizurr or Sigvatr were his skalds.

Events documented in poetry: Viking campaigns against the Jamtr, Wends and Gotar (Hfr Óldr 1-2), in Skáney (Skåne) and near Heiðabý (Hedeby, Hfr Óldr 2), against the Saxar and Frísar (Hfr Óldr 3), in ‘Hólmr’ (Bornholm (?)), Garðar (Russia), against the Valkerar and Flæmingjar (Hfr Óldr 4), in the British Isles (Hfr Óldr 5-6); arrival in Norway and departure of Eiríkr jarl Hákonarson to the Swedish court (ÞKolb Eirdr 6, 7); the battle of Svǫlðr c. 1000 (Hfr ErfÓl 1-24; Skúli SvǫlðrIII; Stefnir Lv 1; OSnorr Lv; Eþsk Cpt; Hókr Eirfl; ÞKolb Eirdr 8); consequences of the battle (ÞKolb Eirdr 9-10); desolation at Óláfr’s death (Hfr ErfÓl 25, 26a, 28). Óláfr as unequalled king (Hfr ErfÓl 27); Óláfr’s ban on heathen sacrifices (Hfr Lv 10V (Hallfr 13)); resistance by the pagan Bárðr (Bárðr Lv); an incident involving a missionary to Iceland during Óláfr’s reign (Anon (´ÓT) 1); Óláfr’s encounter with a mysterious man in a boat (Anon (´ÓT) 2-3). Events of a more informal or individual kind: Óláfr’s dealings with the poet Hallfreðr (Hfr Lv 4-5 V, 11V (Hallfr 5, 8, 14)); in a comic incident, Óláfr rows while his dog steers (Þór Lv). Óláfr himself is credited with two lausavísur: ÓTr Lv 1V (Hallfr 6), a response to Hfr Lv 4V (Hallfr 5), and ÓTr Lv 2 about a guest drinking from a horn. Historical (i.e. non-contemporary) poetry: Óláfr’s fostering in Garðar and command of a fleet there (HSt Rst 2); his departure from Garðar (HSt Rst 3; HSt Frag; Anon Óldr 4); his harrying in the west (HSt Rst 3); his revenge for his father’s death (HSt Rst 4); his attacks on the English (HSt Rst 4; Anon Óldr 5-6), the Wends (HSt Rst 5), the Irish and Scots (HSt Rst 6; Anon Óldr 6-7); his return to Norway and acceptance there (HSt Rst 7-8; Anon Óldr 8-9); his defeat of vikings (Hst Rst 8); his suppression of paganism and promotion of Christianity in Norway (HSt Rst 9; Anon Óldr 9-10; Anon Ól 2); his Christianization of five lands (HSt Rst 10-11; Anon Óldr 11-16); Óláfr’s generosity, hospitality and vigour (HSt Rst 12-14); the battle of Svǫlðr (HSt Rst 15-23; Anon Óldr 17-24); the desolation of the land under Eiríkr jarl (Anon Óldr 25); Óláfr’s marvellous skills (HSt Rst 25; Anon Ól 1); his rescue of a man from a crag (HSt Rst 26-8); Þorkell spies on Óláfr’s marvellous nocturnal visits ashore (Anon Ól 3-4); Óláfr pitches Þorkell overboard, then restores him and his clothes (Hst Rst 29-30; Anon Ól 5-7); Óláfr appears with angels in a building (HSt Rst 31); desolation at Óláfr’s death (HSt Rst 32); Óláfr summoned to bliss by Christ (HSt Rst 33). See also poetry about Eiríkr jarl Hákonarson.

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. SnE 1848-87 = Snorri Sturluson. 1848-87. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar: Edda Snorronis Sturlaei. Ed. Jón Sigurðsson et al. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Legatum Arnamagnaeanum. Rpt. Osnabrück: Zeller, 1966.
  3. Ágr = [Anonymous] Ágrip af Nóregs konunga sögum.
  4. Andersson, Theodore M., trans. 2003. The Saga of Olaf Tryggvason: Oddr Snorrason. Islandica 52. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
  5. MHN = Storm, Gustav, ed. 1880. Monumenta historica Norvegiæ: Latinske kildeskrifter til Norges historie i middelalderen. Kristiania (Oslo): Brøgger. Rpt. 1973. Oslo: Aas & Wahl.
  6. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  7. Andersen, Per Sveaas. 1977. Samlingen av Norge og kristningen av landet 800-1130. Handbok i Norges historie 2. Bergen: Universitetsforlaget.
  8. ASC [Anglo-Saxon Chronicle] = Plummer, Charles and John Earle, eds. 1892-9. Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon. Rpt. 1952.
  9. Finlay, Alison, trans. 2004. Fagrskinna: A Catalogue of the Kings of Norway. Leiden: Brill.
  10. HN = Historia Norwegiæ. In MHN 69-124.
  11. ÍF 29 = Ágrip af Nóregskonunga sǫgum; Fagrskinna—Nóregs konungatal. Ed. Bjarni Einarsson. 1985.
  12. McDougall, David and Ian McDougall, trans. 1998. Theodoricus monachus. Historia de antiquitate regum norwagiensium: An Account of the Ancient History of the Norwegian Kings. Viking Society for Northern Research Text Series 11. University College, London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  13. ÓT 1958-2000 = Ólafur Halldórsson, ed. 1958-2000. Saga Óláfs Tryggvasonar en mesta. 3 vols. EA A 1-3. Copenhagen: Munksgaard (Reitzel).
  14. Theodoricus = Theodrici monachi historia de antiquitate regum Norwagiensium. In MHN 1-68.
  15. Ágr 2008 = Driscoll, Matthew J., ed. and trans. 2008. Ágrip af Nóregskonungasǫgum: A Twelfth-Century Synoptic History of the Kings of Norway. 2nd edn. Viking Society for Northern Research Text Series 10. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  16. Krag, Claus. 2003b. ‘The Early Unification of Norway’. In Helle 2003, 184-201.
  17. ÍF 25 = Færeyinga saga; Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar eptir Odd munk Snorrason. Ed. Ólafur Halldórsson. 2006.
  18. Krag, Claus. 2003a. ‘Óláfr Tryggvason’. In RGA, 22, 63-4.
  19. Rasmussen, Knud. 2000. ‘Slaget ved Svold/Sejerø år 1000’. Fra Holbæk Amt: Årbog for historisk samfund for Holbæk amt, 69-78.
  20. Krag, Claus. 2002. ‘Myten om Hårfargreættens odel: et svar til Knut Dørum’. HT(N) 81, 381-94.
  21. Sawyer, Birgit, Peter Sawyer and Ian Wood, eds. 1987. The Christianization of Scandinavia: Report of a Symposium Held at Kungälv, Sweden, 4-9 August 1985. Alingsås: Viktoria Bokförlag.
  22. Kunin, Devra, trans., and Carl Phelpstead, ed., introd. and notes. 2001. A History of Norway and the Passion and Miracles of the Blessed Óláfr. Viking Society for Northern Research Text Series 13. London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  23. Hollander, Lee M., trans. 1964a. Heimskringla: History of the Kings of Norway by Snorri Sturluson. Austin: The American-Scandinavian Foundation. Rpt. 1991 (rpt. cited in SkP II).
  24. Internal references
  25. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘Fagrskinna (Fsk)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clix-clxi.
  26. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar by Oddr Snorrason (ÓTOdd)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clxxiv-clxxv.
  27. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘(Biography of) Óláfr Tryggvason’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 383.
  28. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Anonymous Poems, Nóregs konungatal 19’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 774.
  29. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Óláfs drápa Tryggvasonar 11’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1043.
  30. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Óláfs drápa Tryggvasonar 17’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1049.
  31. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Óláfs drápa Tryggvasonar 25’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1056.
  32. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Óláfs drápa Tryggvasonar 4’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1036.
  33. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Óláfs drápa Tryggvasonar 5’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1037.
  34. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Óláfs drápa Tryggvasonar 6’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1038.
  35. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Óláfs drápa Tryggvasonar 8’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1039.
  36. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Óláfs drápa Tryggvasonar 9’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1040.
  37. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Flokkr about Sveinn Álfífuson’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1029.
  38. Kate Heslop 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Bárðr á Upplǫndum, Lausavísa’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 442.
  39. Edith Marold with the assistance of Vivian Busch, Jana Krüger, Ann-Dörte Kyas and Katharina Seidel, translated from German by John Foulks 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Hallar-Steinn, Fragments’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 202.
  40. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Óláfsdrápa’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 387.
  41. Kari Ellen Gade 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Halldórr ókristni, Eiríksflokkr’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 469.
  42. Judith Jesch 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Sigvatr Þórðarson, Tryggvaflokkr’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 643.
  43. Kate Heslop 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Skúli Þorsteinsson, Poem about Svǫlðr’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 360.
  44. Kate Heslop 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Þórarinn, Lausavísa’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 445.
  45. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Poem about Óláfr Tryggvason 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1063.
  46. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Poem about Óláfr Tryggvason 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1064.
  47. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Poem about Óláfr Tryggvason 3’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1064.
  48. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Poem about Óláfr Tryggvason 5’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1066.
  49. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Oddr Snorrason, Lausavísa’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 891.
  50. Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 10’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 908.
  51. Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 12’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 910.
  52. Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 15’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 913.
  53. Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 898.
  54. Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 25’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 927.
  55. Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 26’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 928.
  56. Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 29’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 930.
  57. Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 5’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 902.
  58. Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 31’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 933.
  59. Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 32’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 934.
  60. Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 33’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 935.
  61. Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 3’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 900.
  62. Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 4’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 901.
  63. Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 6’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 903.
  64. Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 7’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 904.
  65. Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 8’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 905.
  66. Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 9’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 906.
  67. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Erfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar 25’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 436.
  68. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Erfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar 27’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 439.
  69. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Erfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 403.
  70. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Erfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar 4’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 407.
  71. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Fragment 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 940.
  72. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Óláfsdrápa 3’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 394.
  73. Not published: do not cite (Hfr Lv 10V (Hallfr 13))
  74. Not published: do not cite (Hfr Lv 4V (Hallfr 5))
  75. Not published: do not cite (ÓTr Lv 1V (Hallfr 6))
  76. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2012, ‘Óláfr Tryggvason, Lausavísa 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 384.
  77. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2017, ‘Skúli Þorsteinsson, Poem about Svǫlðr 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 362.
  78. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2012, ‘Stefnir Þorgilsson, Lausavísur 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 448.
  79. Jayne Carroll (ed.) 2012, ‘Þórðr Kolbeinsson, Eiríksdrápa 6’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 497.
  80. Jayne Carroll (ed.) 2012, ‘Þórðr Kolbeinsson, Eiríksdrápa 8’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 500.
  81. Jayne Carroll (ed.) 2012, ‘Þórðr Kolbeinsson, Eiríksdrápa 9’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 501.
  82. Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 34’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 937.
  83. Not published: do not cite ()
  84. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Óláfsdrápa 4’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 395.
  85. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Óláfsdrápa 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 392.
  86. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Óláfsdrápa 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 393.
  87. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Óláfsdrápa 5’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 397.
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