This interface will soon cease to be publicly available. Use the new interface instead. Click here to switch over now.

Cookies on our website

We use cookies on this website, mainly to provide a secure browsing experience but also to collect statistics on how the website is used. You can find out more about the cookies we set, the information we store and how we use it on the cookies page.

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

login: password: stay logged in: help

Eil Þdr 4III l. 4

ǫll — All


allr (adj.): all


[4] ǫll: ‘ol’ W, ól B, A(3v)


[4] ǫll ... halla ‘all ... the cliffs’: (a) To avoid a tripartite l. 4, the present edn follows Kock’s (NN §1216) suggestion that only the last word halla ‘cliffs’ ought to be combined syntactically with l. 3; the line’s first segment ǫll torráðin ‘all difficult’ belongs with the clause in l. 1. (b) In Falk’s (1889c, 253) interpretation and in both of Finnur Jónsson’s eds (TGT 1927; Skj B), l. 4 is split into three syntactic units belonging to different clauses. The first word, which they interpret as ál ‘sprout’ (acc. sg. of áll, which is only attested in Þul Sáðs 1/3) (‘ol’ W, ól B, A(3v)), is combined with skerða ‘damage’ (l. 2); the second word torráðin ‘harmful, difficult’ is combined with vǫtn ok mýrar vôru (torráðin) ‘lakes and marshes were (harmful)’ (l. 1); and hvála ‘hills’ (‘hola’ W, B, A(5v), ‘hóla’ A(3v)), the last word of l. 4, is combined with l. 3: svell vas áðr of alla (hvála) ‘ice was earlier over all hills’. This gives the following interpretation (Skj B): vǫtn ok mýrar vôru torráðin; verðr hitt, at þau skerða ál, svell vas áðr of alla hvála, which can be translated as ‘lakes and marshes were harmful; it happens that they damage the seedling, ice was earlier over all hills’. According to that interpretation, the half-stanza describes a harsh winter and the ensuing bad consequences for the crops.



© Skaldic Project Academic Body, unless otherwise noted. Database structure and interface developed by Tarrin Wills. All users of material on this database are reminded that its content may be either subject to copyright restrictions or is the property of the custodians of linked databases that have given permission for members of the skaldic project to use their material for research purposes. Those users who have been given access to as yet unpublished material are further reminded that they may not use, publish or otherwise manipulate such material except with the express permission of the individual editor of the material in question and the General Editor of the volume in which the material is to be published. Applications for permission to use such material should be made in the first instance to the General Editor of the volume in question. All information that appears in the published volumes has been thoroughly reviewed. If you believe some information here is incorrect please contact Tarrin Wills with full details.