Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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kenning referents

(list alphabetically)
§1 earth, landEARTH, GIANT-LANDS, GROUND, ICELAND, ISLAND, LAND, SHINGLE, SHORE, WORLD
§2 grass, woodlandGRASS
§3 stone, jewelCRAG, JEWEL, JEWELS, ROCK, STONE, STONES
§4 caveCAVE
§5 seaMAELSTROM, OCEAN, SEA, SEA PATH, VOYAGE
§5 [2] fjordFJORDS
§6 waveBREAKER, SEA-SPRAY, SURF, WAVE, WAVES
§7 seaweedSEAWEED
§8 waterRIVER, RIVERS, RIVERS/LAKES, WATER
§9 iceICE
§10 fireFIRE
§11 wind, stormWIND, WINDS
§12 rainRAIN
§13 hailHAIL
§14 sunSUN
§15 moonMOON
§16 heavenly bodiesHEAVENLY BODIES
§17 skySKY
§18 heaven (Christian)HEAVEN, SKIES/HEAVENS, SKY/HEAVEN
§19 hell (Christian)HELL
§20 airAIR
§21 winter, summerSUMMER, WINTER, WINTERS
§22 springSPRING
§23 day and nightNIGHT
§25 bearBEAR
§26 foxFOX
§27 goatGOAT
§28 sheepRAM, SHEEP
§29 horseHORSE, HORSES
§30 oxBULL, OX
§31 dogDOG
§32 cat, mouseCAT, MOUSE
§33 flyFLY
§34 duckDUCK
§35 hawk, falconHAWK
§36 snake, serpentSERPENT, SERPENTS, SNAKE, SNAKES
§37 fishFISH, HERRINGS
§38 whaleWHALE
§39 sea-snailSEA-SNAILS
§41 ravenRAVEN, RAVENS
§42 eagleEAGLE, EAGLES
§42.1 bird of battlefieldBIRD OF PREY, RAVEN/EAGLE, RAVENS/EAGLES
§43 wolfSHE-WOLF, WOLF, WOLF/WOLVES, WOLVES
§44 bodyBODY
§45 headHEAD, HEADS
§46 brainBRAIN
§47 hairHAIR
§48 earEAR, EARS
§49 eyeEYE, EYES
§50 browsEYEBROWS
§51 eyelashesEYELASHES
§52 tearsCROCODILE TEARS, TEARS
§53 forehead, faceFACE, FOREHEAD
§54 noseNOSE
§55 beardBEARD
§56 mouthMOUTH
§57 jawboneJAWBONE
§58 beakBEAK
§59 teethTEETH, TOOTH
§60 tongueTONGUE
§61 spitSPIT
§62 chest, breastBREAST, BREASTS, CHEST, CHESTS
§63 heart, mind, courageHEART
§64 thought, courageCOURAGE, MIND, THOUGHT
§65 shoulderBACKBONE, BELLY, NECK, SHOULDER, SHOULDERS
§66 arm, handARM, ARM/HAND, ARMS, ARMS/HANDS, FINGER, HAND, HANDS
§67 footFOOT
§68 toesTOES
§69 claw, talonCLAW, CLAWS, PAWS, TALON, TALONS
§70 tailTAIL
§71 wingWING, WINGS
§72 hornANTLERS, HORN, HORNS
§73 weaponMISSILES, WAR-GEAR, WEAPON, WEAPONS
§74 arrow, spearARROW, ARROW/SPEAR, ARROWS, SPEAR, SPEAR-BLADES, SPEARS
§75 axeAXE, AXE-BLADE, AXE-HEAD, AXES, BATTLE-AXE
§76 swordAXE/SWORD, BLADE, SWORD, SWORD BLADE, SWORD BLADES, SWORD/SPEAR, SWORDS
§77 armourARMOUR
§78 helmetHEADGUARD, HELMET, HELMET OF TERROR, HELMETS
§79 mail-coatBYRNIE, BYRNIES, MAIL-COAT, MAIL-COATS, MAIL-SHIRT, MAIL-SHIRTS
§80 shieldSHIELD, SHIELD-FACE, SHIELD-RIM, SHIELD-RIMS, SHIELDS
§81 battle, conflictBATTLE, BATTLE NOISE, BATTLES
§82 woundCHEST WOUNDS, WOUND, WOUNDS
§83 corpse, carrion, slainCARRION, CORPSE, CORPSES, DEAD MAN, GHOST
§84 bloodBLOOD
§85 ship, boatBOAT, BOATS, SHIP, SHIPS, WARSHIPS
§86 ship accessoriesAFTER-DECK, ANCHOR, OAR, OARS, RUDDER, SAIL, TILLER
§87 gold, silver, wealthGOLD, PIECE OF GOLD, PRECIOUS METAL, SILVER
§88 man, maleADVERSARY AT LAW, AUTHORITARIAN MAN, BELLIGERENT MAN, BOWMEN, CAPTAIN, CRIMINAL, DANISH KING, DWARF, DWARFS, EVIL MAN, FARMER, FRATRICIDE, GENEROUS MAN, GENEROUS MEN, GIANT, GIANT/DWARF, GIANTS, HEATHEN, HEATHEN MAN, HEATHENS, HONOURABLE MAN, HOUSEHOLDER, INJURED MAN, LEARNED MAN, MAN, MAN/WARRIOR, MEN, POWERFUL MAN, RICH MAN, SEA-KING, SEA-WARRIOR, SEAFARER, SEAFARERS, TROLL, TROLLS, UNCOUTH EATER, WARRIOR, WARRIORS, WEALTHY MAN
§89 son, descendantDESCENDANT, DESCENDANTS, LOVER, SON, SONS
§90 ruler, kingBAD KING, ENGLISH KING, GENEROUS RULER, GENEROUS RULERS, JARL, JUST RULER, KING, KINGS, LEADER, NOBLEMAN, NORWEGIAN KING, NORWEGIAN RULER, RULER, RULERS, STERN RULER, SWEDISH RULER, TREASURE GUARDIAN
§91 poetPOET, POETS, SKALD
§92 peopleBEGGAR, CONTEMPTIBLE MAN, CONTEMPTIBLE MEN, CRUEL MAN, FISHERMAN, HUMANKIND, HUMANS, JUDGE, MANKIND, OLD MAN, PEOPLE, POOR MAN, RETAINER, RETAINERS, SHEPHERD, SMITH, TANNER, TORMENTOR, WICKED MEN
§93 God, angelANGEL, ANGELS, CHRIST, DEITY, GOD, GODS
§94 priest, saintAPOSTLE, APOSTLES, BISHOP, CARDINAL, CHRISTIAN PEOPLE, CLERIC, CLERICS, HOLY MAN, HOLY MEN, MARTYR, MISSIONARY, NEGLIGENT PRIEST, PRIEST, SAINT, SAINTS, THE BLESSED, THE CHURCH, VIRTUOUS MAN, VIRTUOUS RULER
§95 devilDEVIL, DEVILS, THE DEVIL
§96 woman, femaleBELLIGERENT WOMAN, GIANTESS, GIANTESSES, NORN, TROLL-WIFE, TROLL-WOMAN, TROLL-WOMEN, VALKYRIE, VALKYRIES, WOMAN, WOMEN
§97 holy womanFEMALE SAINT, HOLY VIRGINS, HOLY WOMAN, HOLY WOMEN
§100 poetryBAD POETRY, DRÁPA, MEAD OF POETRY, MEAD OF POETRY/POETRY, POEM, POEMS, POETIC CORPUS, POETRY, PRAISE POEM
§101 house and accessoriesHEARTH, HEARTH STONE, HOUSE, PILLAR, WINDOW
§102 church and accessoriesBELL, CHURCH, CHURCHES, CROSS
§103 drink, wine, beer, meadALE, BEER, DRINK, MEAD, WINE, WINE/ALE
§104 sausageSAUSAGE, SAUSAGES
§105.01 cloakCLOAK
§105.02 headbandHEADBAND, HEADBANDS
§105.03 headdressHEADDRESS
§105.04 shoeSHOE, SHOE/FOOT, SHOES
§105.05 soleSOLE
§105.06 fishing lineFISHING LINE
§105.07 fishhookFISHHOOK
§105.08 bierBIER
§105.09 cupCUP, DRINKING HORN, DRINKING HORNS
§105.10 bellowsBELLOWS
§105.11 gameboardGAMEBOARD
§105.12 ironIRON
§105.13 pigmentPIGMENT
§105.14 gallowsGALLOWS
§105.15 grainGRAIN
§105.16 poisonPOISON
§105.17 graveGRAVE
§105.18 gravemound, cairnGRAVEMOUND
§105.19 pitchforkPITCHFORK
§105.20 combCOMB
§105.21 kettleKETTLE
§105.22 scraperSCRAPER
§105.23 lancetLANCET
§105.24 leatherLEATHER
§105.25 millMILL
§105.26 thongTHONG
§105.27 sceptreSCEPTRE
§105.28 grindstoneGRINDSTONE
§105.29 whetstoneWHETSTONE
§105.30 sickleSICKLE
§105.31 stickSTICK
§105.32 reinsREINS
§105.33 old ageOLD AGE
§105.34 beautyBEAUTY
§105.35 hopeHOPE
§105.36 beatingBEATING
§105.37 speechSPEECH
§105.38 abuseABUSE
§105.39 painPAIN
§105.40 joyJOY
§105.41 sinSIN, SINS
§105.42 illnessFEVER, ILLNESS
§105.43 satietySATIETY
§105.44 strifeSTRIFE
§105.45 sorrowSORROW
§105.46 sleepSLEEP
§105.47 dreamDREAM
§106 deathDEATH
§x arm partsFINGERS
§x bedBED
§x bowBOW, BOWS, BOWSTRING, BOWSTRINGS
§x cloudCLOUD
§x fire-woodFIRE-WOOD
§x flight, flyingFLIGHT
§x floorFLOOR
§x mountain, hillside, cliffMOUNTAIN, MOUNTAINS, ZENITH
§x penisPENIS
§x ringARM-RING, ARM-RINGS, GOLD RINGS, RING, RINGS
§x scriptureHOLY WRITINGS, SCRIPTURES
§x tree, woodTREE
[unclassified], ?, ABSCESS, ALE-DREGS, ARCHBISHOP, ARROWS/SPEARS, ÁSGARÐR, BACK, BATTLE-FIELDS, BATTLEFIELD, BONE, BONES, BOWL, BUTTOCKS, CARGO, CATTLE, CAULDRON, CHARIOTEER, CHIEFTAINS, CLIFF, COAST, COLOUR, CULT HOUSE, EGG, ENGLAND, EXECUTIONER, EYELID, FAME, FEEDER, FEET, FIELD, FIGHTER, FLYING LAVA, FOOD, FORD, FOREST, GAME BIRD, GENEROUS, GLADDENER, GOLD-RING, HAT, HAY, HEARING, HEARTS, HEATH, HEATHEN GOD, HEATHEN TEMPLE, HELPER, HJAÐNINGAR, HOLY SACRAMENT, HOLY SEPULCHRE, HOLY SPIRIT, HUNGER, HUNTSMAN, ICELANDER, ICELANDERS, IDOLS, INSULTS, JEW, JUTLAND, KILLER, LATIN, LEATHER STRAP, LIFE, LIFESPAN, LIGHTNING, LIMBS, LOOM, LOVE, LOVERS, MEAD OF POETRY/POEM, NIGGARDLINESS, NOOSE, NORWAY, NORWEGIANS, OAR BLADES, ORGANS OF SPEECH, OX SKULL, OX TEETH, PARADISE, PATRILINE, PEACE, PIECE OF IRON, PIOUS MAN, PRINCE, PRINCES, PRIVY HOLE, PROPHET, RIDGE, ROCKS, SAND, SERIOUS ILLNESS, SERVANT, SERVANTS, SHEATH, SHIELD-WALL, SHIELD-WALLS, SKERRY, SKULL, SKULLS, SOIL, SONGS, SORCERESS, SOUL, SOULS, SOW, STANDARD, STORM, SUNDAY, SWIMMER, SWORD SHEATHS, SWORD-SHEATH, THE ENGLISH, TORTURE-WHEEL, TRINITY, TRØNDELAG, UNIVERSE, UPPHAF, VAT, VITALS, VIXEN, VOLCANIC ERUPTION, VOMIT, WAGON, WIDOW, WINE-VESSEL, WOLF-SKIN, WOMB, YNGLING
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