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Note to stanza
 es ‘who’: Here taken with feimu ‘maid’ (l. 3). Kershaw (1922, 83) may be right that it has causal significance here, meaning ‘for, because’. Most eds would have es directly modify valkyria ‘valkyrie’ in l. 1, yet although this has the advantage of drawing a more direct connection between vitr ‘wise’ and the valkyrie’s understanding of bird language, it makes of ll. 2-3 an intercalary clause, producing a syntactic style that is not very common in this poem (though see st. 11).
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