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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Note to stanza

1. 28. Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, 1. Óláfsdrápa, 5 [Vol. 1, 397]

[5, 8] brezkrar jarðar … kumrskar þjóðir ‘of the British land … the Cumbric peoples’: Both terms are somewhat elusive, but typically refer to the Celtic, Brittonic-speaking peoples of Strathclyde (now south-west Scotland), Cumbria (north-west England) and Wales; see Poole 1987, 292-8 for a review of the usage of Bretar/brezkr in Old Norse sources. The identification of the peoples mentioned here is not helped by the uncertainty over the ordering of the stanzas (see Introduction).


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