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Runic Dictionary

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R. Runic lexicon


(subheadings only)

1. Contents

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2. Volume Editor's Preface

This volume has been long in the making, and along the way I have incurred numerous debts of gratitude. I am grateful to the Contributing Editors, Jayne Carroll, Lauren Goetting, Judith Jesch, Russell Poole, Matthew Townend, Diana Whaley and Valgerður Erna Þorvaldsdóttir, for their patience and their promptness in answering my barrages of emails, and for their cooperation during the process of our ‘quality control’. I am also greatly indebted to the Research Associates and Assistants who have made the publication of this volume possible. Over the years, Research Associate Valgerður Erna Þorvaldsdóttir has been an invaluable help in transcribing manuscripts both at Stofnun Árna Magnússonar in Reykjavík and at Den Arnamagnæanske Samling in Copenhagen, and her positive attitude, her expertise in palaeography and her efficiency have been much appreciated indeed. The ‘Sydney team’ has been extremely supportive, with Emily Baynham helping out with the Bibliography in this volume and Hannah Burrows entering the Bibliography into the database and making last-minute transcriptions and checking manuscripts at Den Arnamagnæanske Samling in Copenhagen. Above all, I would like to express my gratitude to my own Research Associate, Lauren Goetting, who has worked with me on the project since 2006. Not only has she entered all but a few of the editions in SkP II into the database, working with meticulous attention to detail and catching my mistakes, but she also undertook the Herculean task of teaching me how to use the database. In addition, she took on the edition of Óláfr hvítaskáld Þórðarson’s poetry at short notice, for which I am extremely grateful.

My deepest gratitude is owed to my fellow General Editors, Margaret Clunies Ross, Edith Marold, Guðrún Nordal, Diana Whaley and Tarrin Wills. Since 1997 we have met annually to discuss the editorial procedure and to hammer out details concerning editorial principles. In true Viking spirit, many battles have been fought, but we have emerged as a solidified group, and strong and everlasting friendships have been forged. My collaborators have been extremely helpful during the process of ‘quality control’ of the editions in this volume, many of them setting aside their own work to wade through the batches of editions that kept clogging up their inboxes. Guðrún Nordal lent her expertise in the area of Modern Icelandic word order and grammar, and Edith Marold, our resident specialist on kennings and poetic diction, was a font of wisdom in her field of expertise (‘Ich meine, das ist keine Kenning!’). Throughout the ‘quality control’ Diana Whaley worked heroically at cleaning up my English and catching mistakes, and she provided invaluable insights into the finer nuances of skaldic poetry. Tarrin Wills has been a pillar of support in all areas electronic. He readily answered all my calls for help (which were legion) and miraculously fixed all the glitches in the database and formatting problems in some editions as they appeared in the database. Tarrin is responsible for the final formatting of this volume, and he has also generated the Index of First Lines and the Table of Contents in the front and end materials. Last, but not least, I am eternally grateful to Margaret Clunies Ross. Her energy, generosity and erudition in all areas skaldic and non-skaldic supported and encouraged me throughout the editorial process, and our daily morning-evening email correspondence was highly treasured and served to keep me sane. Margaret has lent a helpful hand to all aspects of this volume, and without her it would not have come to fruition.
Kari Ellen Gade
Bloomington, Indiana, December 2008

3. Acknowledgements

The editors would very much like to acknowledge the support of Stofnun Árna Magnússonar í íslenzkum fræðum in Reykjavík and Den Arnamagnæanske Samling in Copenhagen and of Vésteinn Ólason (Director) and Matthew Driscoll (Afdelingsleder) at the respective institutes. Both Institutes have generously opened their doors to editors and research associates from the skaldic project, provided access to their libraries, shared their technical equipment and made possible the scanning and transcriptions of manuscripts which serve as the foundation for the edition.

We would like to express our gratitude to the Australian Research Council for the ongoing support of the project, which has been instrumental in allowing us to maintain a group of Research Assistants and Associates who are of enormous benefit to the edition as a whole, including this volume. We are indebted to Margaret Clunies Ross, who has made her own Research Assistants and Associates available to the other General Editors to help with the data entering of other volumes. We also grateful to the Joint Committee of the Nordic Research Councils for Humanities (NOS-H, Nordiska samarbetsnämnden för humanistisk forskning) and the Icelandic Research Council, whose support benefited the entire edition, including this volume, by enabling the funding of Research Associates (Valgerður Erna Þorvaldsdóttir, Soffía Guðný Guðmundsdóttir) for the transcription of manuscripts. A special thanks goes to Guðrún Nordal, who volunteered the time and expertise of her assistants to the other General Editors. We also gratefully acknowledge the support of the (UK) Arts and Humanities Research Council, whose grant helped fund the work of Diana Whaley and her Research Fellow, Kate Heslop.

On behalf of the Contributing Editors of SkP II, we would like to thank the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, Canada, for awarding a grant to Russell Poole, and the University of Sheffield Faculty of Arts Research Fund, which funded Jayne Carroll’s research in Iceland.

The production of the present volume would not have been possible without funding from the following academic bodies: the College of Arts and Sciences Humanities Center at Indiana University, Bloomington, which awarded Kari Ellen Gade a grant in support of teaching release for the autumn semester of 2006; New Frontiers at Indiana University, whose grant enabled her to fund a Research Associate (Lauren Goetting) for the academic year 2006-7; the National Endowment for the Humanities, which likewise funded Project Assistant Goetting for the academic year 2007-8. Any views, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect those of the National Endowment for the Humanities.

4. General Abbreviations

Note that sigla for all ON-Icel. poetry, sagas, compendia and þættir referred to in this edn are to be found in the List of sigla, with the exception of abbreviations for poems of the Elder Edda (which are listed below), while abbreviated references to eds, facsimiles and secondary sources are to be found listed in alphabetical order in the Bibliography. All other abbreviations are listed here.

Abbreviations are used in all parts of the edn, except at the beginning of sentences and in most sections of the Introduction. Note that plurals of abbreviated words are written in full, e.g. ‘infinitives’, ‘adverbs’ unless pl. forms are listed below, e.g. ‘ll.’, ‘sts’. Grammatical and Linguistic Abbreviations

acc. — accusative

adj. — adjective

adv. — adverb

cl. — clause

comp. — comparative

conj. — conjunction

cpd — compound

dat. — dative

def. art. — definite article


e-n — einhvern

e-s — einhvers

e-t — eitthvat

e-u — einhverju

f. — feminine

gen. — genitive

imp. — imperative

indef. — indefinite

indic. — indicative

inf. — infinitive

instr. — instrumental

interrog. — interrogative

m. — masculine

m. v. — middle voice, mediopassive

n. — neuter

nom. — nominative

perf. — perfect

pers. n. — personal name

pl. — plural

poss. — possessive

p. n. — place name

p. p. — past participle

prep. — preposition

pres. part. — present participle

pret. — preterite

pron. — pronoun

refl. — reflexive

rel. — relative

sg. — singular

subj. — subjunctive

sup. — superlative

1st pers. — first person

2nd pers. — second person

3rd pers. — third person Abbreviations for Languages and Nationalities

Dan. — Danish

Engl. — English

Ger. — German

Gk — Greek

Gmc — Germanic

Goth. — Gothic

Icel. — Icelandic

Lat. — Latin

ME — Middle English

MHG — Middle High German

MIr. — Middle Irish

MLat. — Medieval Latin

MLG — Middle Low German

ModDan. — Modern Danish

ModIcel. — Modern Icelandic

ModNorw. — Modern Norwegian

ModSwed. — Modern Swedish

New Norw. — New Norwegian (nynorsk)

Norw. — Norwegian

ODan. — Old Danish

OE — Old English

OFr. — Old French

OHG — Old High German

OIcel. — Old Icelandic

OIr. — Old Irish

ON — Old Norse (used where differentiation between individual early Nordic [norrœn] — languages is not necessary or possible)

ONorw. Old Norwegian

OS — Old Saxon

OSwed. — Old Swedish Abbreviated References to Poems of the Elder Edda in SkP II

Akv — Atlakviða

Am — Atlamál

Bdr — Baldrs draumar

Fáfn — Fáfnismál

Grí — Grímnismál

Gríp — Grípisspá

Grott — Grottasǫngr

Guðr I — Guðrúnarkviða I

Guðr II — Guðrúnarkviða II

Ghv — Guðrúnarhvǫt

Hamð — Hamðismál

Hárb — Hárbarðsljóð

Hávm — Hávamál

HHund I — Helgakviða Hundingsbana I

HHj — Helgakviða Hjǫrvarðssonar

Hyndl — Hyndluljóð

Lok — Lokasenna

Reg — Reginsmál

Sigrdr — Sigrdrífumál

Sigsk  Sigurðarkviða in skamma Other Abbreviations and Notations

ÁM — Árni Magnússon

c. — circa

C10th — tenth century (and similarly for references to other centuries)

ch. — chapter

chs — chapters

d. — died

ed. — editor, edited (by)

edn — edition

eds — editors, editions

fol. — folio

fols — folios

hap. leg.hapax legomenon (pl. legomena)—unique word(s)

l. — line

ll. — lines

lit. — literally (used in translations [italicised] and notes [roman])

lv. — lausavísa

lvv. — lausavísur

ms. — manuscript

mss — manuscripts

n. — note (but e.g. Anm. if notes are labelled as such in the source)

nn. — notes

no. — number

nos — numbers

p. — page

pp. — pages

r. — reigned (of regnal dates of kings, earls, etc.)

S. — Saint

s. a.sub anno ‘under year’—for references to materials in annals

sby — somebody

st. — stanza

sth. — something

sts — stanzas

v. — verse

vv. — verses

vol. — volume

vols — volumes

w. o. — word order

* — reconstructed form, e.g. hypothetical etymon, no longer extant ms.

† — obelos symbol for textual material that is impossibly corrupt or cannot be made sense of. One † is placed immediately before the beginning of the piece of corrupt text and another immediately after it.

5. Sigla Used in Volume II

1. Sigla for Skaldic Poems and Stanzas
2. Sigla for Manuscript Collections
3. Sigla for Manuscripts used in the Editions of this Volume
4. Sigla for Þættir, Sagas and Compendia

6. Technical Terms

1. Old Norse-Icelandic Technical Terms
2. Other Technical Terms

7. The Contributors

Jayne Carroll is Lecturer in English Historical Linguistics at the University of Leicester. She has written articles on OE and ON poetry, and, with David N. Parsons, a three-volume study of the place-names found as mint-signatures on Anglo-Saxon coins.

Kari Ellen Gade is Professor of Germanic Studies and Adjunct Professor of English at Indiana University, Bloomington. She is the author of The Structure of Old Norse dróttkvætt Poetry (Ithaca and London, 1995) and, with Theodore M. Andersson, Morkinskinna: The Earliest Icelandic Chronicle of the Norwegian Kings (1030-1157) (Ithaca and London, 2000). Her research interests are in ON language, literature, culture and history, together with Germanic philology and metrics. She is one of the General Editors of Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages and Volume Editor of Volume II.

Lauren Goetting is a Ph.D. student in the department of Germanic Studies at Indiana University, Bloomington. She has worked as a Research Associate to the project Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages since 2006. Her areas of interest include Germanic philology and linguistics, skaldic poetry and ON mythology.

Judith Jesch is Professor of Viking Studies at the University of Nottingham and the author of Women in the Viking Age (Woodbridge, 1991) and Ships and Men in the Late Viking Age: The Vocabulary of Runic Inscriptions and Skaldic Verse (Woodbridge, 2001). Her research interests include skaldic verse, runic inscriptions and Norse cultures in the British Isles.

Russell Poole is Professor of English at the University of Western Ontario. His research activities centre upon skaldic poetry, Scandinavian culture contacts, history of Scandinavia and Anglo-Saxon England, medieval cultivation of personal poetry, the history of medieval studies and poetic composition in the medieval and early modern era. His publications include Viking Poems on War and Peace (Toronto, 1991), Old English Wisdom Poetry (Cambridge, 1998), Skaldsagas (Berlin, 2000) and, with Antonina Harbus, Verbal Encounters: Anglo-Saxon and Old Norse studies for Roberta Frank (Toronto, 2004). He has been elected to a Fellowship in the New Zealand Academy of Humanities.

Matthew Townend is Senior Lecturer in the Department of English and Related Literature, and Centre for Medieval Studies, University of York. He is the author of English Place-Names in Skaldic Verse (Nottingham, 1998) and Language and History in Viking Age England (Turnhout, 2002), and the editor of Wulfstan, Archbishop of York (Turnhout, 2004).

Valgerður Erna Þorvaldsdóttir was a Research Associate (from June 2002 to April 2008) to the project Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages. Her main area of interest within ON-Icel. Studies is skaldic poetry, especially that of the thirteenth century.

Diana Whaley is Professor of Early Medieval Studies at Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne. Her research and teaching interests are in the fields of ON-Icel. poetry and saga, Engl. place-names, and medieval Engl. literature, and her publications include Heimskringla: An Introduction (London, 1991), The Poetry of Arnórr jarlaskáld (Turnhout, 1998), Sagas of Warrior Poets (Harmondsworth, 2002), and A Dictionary of Lake District Place-Names (Nottingham, 2006). She is one of the General Editors of Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages and Volume Editor of Volume I.

8. Introduction

1. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages: A New Edition
2. The Poetry in this Volume
3. How to use this Edition
4. Sources for Skaldic Poetry Cited in the Kings' Sagas
5. Biographies
6. Metres, Poetic Diction and Normalisation

-. Poetry from the Kings' Sagas 2: The Corpus

go to index of first lines

A. Bibliography

go to bibliography for volume II

B. Index of First Lines

go to index of first lines

C. Indices of Names and Terms

1. Ethnic Names
2. Indigenous Terms
3. Mythical and Legendary Names
4. Nicknames
5. Personal Names
6. Place Names
7. Miscellaneous Names

X. - changes and corrections since printing

  • Ålborg > Aalborg [not entered]
© 2008-