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Þjóðólfr ór Hvini (Þjóð)

9th century; volume 1; ed. Edith Marold;

1. Ynglingatal (Yt) - 37

Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, or inn hvinverski, ‘from Hvinir’ (Þjóð) was a Norwegian skald of the late ninth or early tenth century. As his nickname indicates, he was from Hvinir (Kvinesdal, Vest-Agder). His biography is largely unknown. Skáldatal names him as poet to several rulers and powerful men: Haraldr hárfagri ‘Fair-hair’ and Rǫgnvaldr heiðumhár or heiðumhæri ‘High with Honours’ (SnE 1848-87, III, 253, 261, 273), Hákon jarl Grjótgarðsson (ibid., 256, 265, 280), Þorleifr inn spaki ‘the Wise’ (ibid., 259, 268, 285), Strút-Haraldr jarl (ibid., 259, 284) and an unknown Sveinn jarl (ibid., 268). However, the associations with Hákon, Strút-Haraldr and Þorleifr are uncertain since they may have lived later in the tenth century; see Bugge (1894, 145, 175); Åkerlund (1939, 7). In Hkr, both within the Prologue (ÍF 26, 4) and in HHárf (ÍF 26, 127-8, 139), Þjóðólfr is represented as skald and friend to Haraldr hárfagri and as a dedicated foster-father to Haraldr’s son Guðrøðr ljómi ‘Beam of Light’. It is in this context that he speaks the two lausavísur associated with him (Þjóð Lv 1-2). Þjóðólfr ór Hvini is the composer of the poems Ynglingatal (Þjóð Yt) and Haustlǫng (Þjóð HaustlIII, edited in SkP III). Five stanzas of a poem dedicated to Haraldr hárfagri (Þjóð Har) are also attributed to him. Several stanzas of Haraldskvæði (Þhorn Harkv) are falsely attributed to Þjóðólfr; see Introduction to Harkv. Finally, a fragment (Þjóðólfr FragIII) edited in SkP III is likely to be the work of a different Þjóðólfr, though it is tentatively associated with Þjóð Yt in Skj; see Introduction to Yt.

Ynglingatal — Þjóð YtI

Edith Marold with the assistance of Vivian Busch, Jana Krüger, Ann-Dörte Kyas and Katharina Seidel, translated from German by John Foulks 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 3.

stanzas:  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27 

for reference only:  8x   11x   13x   14x   15x   16x   17x   20x   25x   26x 

Skj: Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, enn hvinverski: 1. Ynglingatal (AI, 7-15, BI, 7-14); stanzas (if different): 9 | 10 | 11 | 12-13 | 13 | 14 | 15-16 | 16 | 17-18 | 18 | 19-20 | 20 | 21-22 | 22 | 23-24 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27-28 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33-34 | 34 | 35-36 | 36 | 37 | 38(?)

SkP info: I, 16

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance search files

5 — Þjóð Yt 5I

edition interactive full text transcriptions old edition references concordance


Cite as: Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal 5’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 16.

Hitt vas fyrr,
at fold ruðu
sínum dróttni.
Ok landherr
af lífsvǫnum
dreyrug vôpn
Dómalda bar,
þás árgjǫrn
Jóta dolgi
Svía kind
of sóa skyldi.

Hitt vas fyrr, at {sverðberendr} ruðu fold dróttni sínum. Ok landherr bar dreyrug vôpn af lífsvǫnum Dómalda, þás árgjǫrn kind Svía skyldi of sóa {dolgi Jóta}.

It happened earlier that {the sword-bearers} [WARRIORS] reddened the ground with [the blood of] their leader. And the army of the land bore bloody weapons away from the lifeless Dómaldi when the race of the Swedes, eager for good harvests, had to sacrifice {the enemy of the Jótar} [= Dómaldi].

Mss: (18v), papp18ˣ(5r), 521ˣ(17), F(3rb), J2ˣ(9v), R685ˣ(11r) (Hkr); 761aˣ(56r)

Readings: [2] ruðu: ‘ruða’ papp18ˣ, ryðu J2ˣ, R685ˣ    [3] ‑berendr: ‑rjóðendr J2ˣ, R685ˣ    [4] sínum: Svíum R685ˣ    [5] ‑herr: ‑herra R685ˣ    [6] af: so J2ˣ, R685ˣ, á Kˣ, 521ˣ, F, 761aˣ, om. papp18ˣ;    ‑vǫnum: so F, J2ˣ, R685ˣ, ‑vanan Kˣ, papp18ˣ, 521ˣ, 761aˣ    [11] Svía: corrected from sína R685ˣ

Editions: Skj: Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, enn hvinverski, 1. Ynglingatal 5: AI, 8, BI, 8, Skald I, 5; Hkr 1893-1901, I, 31, IV, 7-8, ÍF 26, 32, Hkr 1991, I, 18 (Yng ch. 15), F 1871, 11; Yng 1912, 22, 58-9, Yng 2000, 20; Yt 1914, 3, Yt 1925, 198, 219‑20.

Context: King Dómaldi succeeds his father Vísburr. The Swedes, plagued by famine, stage a sacrificial ceremony in Uppsala three years in a row. The first year they sacrifice bulls and the second year humans. When the famine continues, they finally sacrifice their king Dómaldi himself.

Notes: [All]: According to HN (2003, 74), Dómaldi was sacrificed to the goddess Ceres, possibly meaning Freyja: Cuius filium Domald Sweones suspendentes pro fertilitate frugum Cereri hostiam obtulerunt ‘In hanging his [Vísbúrr’s] son Dómaldr, the Swedes made an offering to Ceres for the fruitfulness of the harvest’. The supposition in ÍF 26 (and similarly Hkr 1991), that Dómaldi was first hanged and then marked by a spear in sacrifice to Óðinn, is improbable, since an offering to Óðinn is unlikely to belong within the context of fertility rites. On the contrary, this stanza of Yt clearly connects the sacrifice to a desire for good harvests. The sacrificial killing of Dómaldi has been the subject of much debate, involving contradictory conceptions of sacral kingship, royal sacrifice etc., cf. Baetke (1964, 51-68), Turville-Petre (1964, 191), and overview in Sundqvist (2002, 241-53). — [6, 8] af lífsvǫnum Dómalda ‘away from the lifeless Dómaldi’: (a) The reading af ‘from, of’ (J2ˣ, R685ˣ) is adopted in this edn, as in most eds. (b) Á ‘on, upon, to, towards’ (, F, 761aˣ) would imply that the king was already dead when the warriors raised their weapons against him. Konráð Gíslason (1881, 217-18) assumes the idiomatic expression bera vápn á e-n ‘raise arms against sby’ and counters the objection that the weapons were already dreyrug ‘bloody’ (l. 7) by asserting that this is a descriptive epithet based on the associative link between blood and weapons (and a similar epithet occurs in st. 11/6). — [8] Dómalda ‘Dómaldi’: Two forms of the name occur: Dómaldi (Yt; Yng) and Dómaldr (Íslb, ÍF 1, 27). Turville-Petre (1978-9, 64) claims that the first element dóm-, related to dómr ‘judgement’, only occurs in Continental and OE names (cf. Dómarr in st. 6/5). The second could be traced to Gmc *-waldaz ‘ruler’, a common element in names. — [10] dolgi Jóta ‘the enemy of the Jótar [= Dómaldi]’: This kenning may refer to unrecorded military confrontations with the Jótar, the people of Jutland, or it might have been a conventional circumlocution for any (Swedish) king. Cf. also st. 19/6, which refers to Ǫnundr as dolgi Eista ‘enemy of the Estonians’. Dolgi is dat. sg. since sóa ‘sacrifice’ takes a dat. object.

Runic data from Samnordisk runtextdatabas, Uppsala universitet, unless otherwise stated