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Runic Dictionary

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Þjóðólfr ór Hvini (Þjóð)

9th century; volume 1; ed. Edith Marold;

1. Ynglingatal (Yt) - 37

Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, or inn hvinverski, ‘from Hvinir’ (Þjóð) was a Norwegian skald of the late ninth or early tenth century. As his nickname indicates, he was from Hvinir (Kvinesdal, Vest-Agder). His biography is largely unknown. Skáldatal names him as poet to several rulers and powerful men: Haraldr hárfagri ‘Fair-hair’ and Rǫgnvaldr heiðumhár or heiðumhæri ‘High with Honours’ (SnE 1848-87, III, 253, 261, 273), Hákon jarl Grjótgarðsson (ibid., 256, 265, 280), Þorleifr inn spaki ‘the Wise’ (ibid., 259, 268, 285), Strút-Haraldr jarl (ibid., 259, 284) and an unknown Sveinn jarl (ibid., 268). However, the associations with Hákon, Strút-Haraldr and Þorleifr are uncertain since they may have lived later in the tenth century; see Bugge (1894, 145, 175); Åkerlund (1939, 7). In Hkr, both within the Prologue (ÍF 26, 4) and in HHárf (ÍF 26, 127-8, 139), Þjóðólfr is represented as skald and friend to Haraldr hárfagri and as a dedicated foster-father to Haraldr’s son Guðrøðr ljómi ‘Beam of Light’. It is in this context that he speaks the two lausavísur associated with him (Þjóð Lv 1-2). Þjóðólfr ór Hvini is the composer of the poems Ynglingatal (Þjóð Yt) and Haustlǫng (Þjóð HaustlIII, edited in SkP III). Five stanzas of a poem dedicated to Haraldr hárfagri (Þjóð Har) are also attributed to him. Several stanzas of Haraldskvæði (Þhorn Harkv) are falsely attributed to Þjóðólfr; see Introduction to Harkv. Finally, a fragment (Þjóðólfr FragIII) edited in SkP III is likely to be the work of a different Þjóðólfr, though it is tentatively associated with Þjóð Yt in Skj; see Introduction to Yt.

Ynglingatal — Þjóð YtI

Edith Marold with the assistance of Vivian Busch, Jana Krüger, Ann-Dörte Kyas and Katharina Seidel, translated from German by John Foulks 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 3.

stanzas:  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27 

for reference only:  8x   11x   13x   14x   15x   16x   17x   20x   25x   26x 

Skj: Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, enn hvinverski: 1. Ynglingatal (AI, 7-15, BI, 7-14); stanzas (if different): 9 | 10 | 11 | 12-13 | 13 | 14 | 15-16 | 16 | 17-18 | 18 | 19-20 | 20 | 21-22 | 22 | 23-24 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27-28 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33-34 | 34 | 35-36 | 36 | 37 | 38(?)

SkP info: I, 48

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance search files

22 — Þjóð Yt 22I

edition interactive full text transcriptions old edition references concordance


Cite as: Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal 22’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 48.

Þat frá hverr,
at Halfdanar
sakna skyldu.
Ok hallvarps
á Þótni tók.
Ok Skæreið
í Skíringssal
of brynjalfs
beinum drúpir.

Þat frá hverr, at sǫkmiðlendr skyldu sakna Halfdanar. Ok {hlífi-Nauma hallvarps} tók þjóðkonung á Þótni. Ok Skæreið drúpir of beinum {brynjalfs} í Skíringssal.

Everyone learned that the mediators had to feel the loss of Hálfdan. And {the protecting Nauma <goddess> of the cairn} [= Hel] took the mighty king in Toten. And Skæreið mourns over the bones {of the mailcoat-elf} [WARRIOR] in Skíringssalr.

Mss: (40v), papp18ˣ(10r), 521ˣ(50-51), F(7ra), J1ˣ(19v-20r), J2ˣ(22v-23r), R685ˣ(21v) (Hkr); 761aˣ(62r)

Readings: [1] Þat frá: om. F;    hverr: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, R685ˣ, hyrr Kˣ, papp18ˣ, 521ˣ, F, 761aˣ    [3] sǫk‑: so papp18ˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, R685ˣ, 761aˣ, sǫkk‑ Kˣ, 521ˣ, F    [5] Ok: ok at F;    hallvarps: Hallvarðs J2ˣ    [9] Skæreið: skereið F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ    [10] Skírings‑: so F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, R685ˣ, ‘Skíris‑’ Kˣ, papp18ˣ, 521ˣ, 761aˣ    [11] ‑alfs: ‑alfr F

Editions: Skj: Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, enn hvinverski, 1. Ynglingatal 30: AI, 13-14, BI, 12, Skald I, 8, NN §79; Hkr 1893-1901, I, 77, IV, 22-3, ÍF 26, 76, Hkr 1991, I, 44 (Yng ch. 44), F 1871, 30; Yng 1912, 50, 68, Yng 2000, 63-4; Yt 1914, 15, Yt 1925, 206, 246-7.

Context: Hálfdan hvítbeinn ‘White-bone’, son of Óláfr trételgja ‘Wood-cutter’, is king of Heiðmǫrk (Hedmark) and extends his rule to Þótn (Toten), Haðaland (Hadeland) and Vestfold. He lives to a great age before dying of an illness in Þótn, and is buried in a mound in Vestfold.

Notes: [3] sǫkmiðlendr ‘the mediators’: This, the J reading, is adopted in most previous eds. It is a cpd of sǫk f. ‘lawsuit, case, cause’ and an agent noun from miðla ‘share’; Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) compares OIcel. miðla mál ‘to mediate in a lawsuit’. The exact implications of the term here are unclear. The reading of and F, søkkmiðlendr, adopted in Hkr 1991, could be a standard kenning ‘dealers of wealth [GENEROUS MEN]’, if the existence of an ON word *sǫkk/søkk ‘wealth, treasure’ is accepted, but this is uncertain: see Note to st. 2/10 above. — [5-6] hlífi-Nauma hallvarps ‘the protecting Nauma <goddess> of the cairn [= Hel]’: Hel, goddess of death, also features in st. 7. Nauma appears to be a goddess or giantess, whose name occurs as the base-word in woman-kennings: see Note to Ótt Lv 3/8. The gen. hallvarps ‘of the cairn’ is to be understood as the object of the verbal element hlífi ‘protecting’ which is attached to Nauma. The hap. leg. hallvarp, lit. ‘stone-throwing’ is best interpreted as ‘heap of stones, cairn’ (so Wadstein 1895a, 76 and subsequent eds); Falk (1923, 78) compares New Norw. varp, verp ‘heap of stones commemorating an event, cairn’. Although no other source associates Hel with a cairn, such an association is plausible given the use of cairns in burials or as commemorative monuments. — [9] Skæreið: It is generally assumed that Skæreið is the subject of drúpir ‘droops, mourns’ and refers to a place (see LP: drúpa 1 for parallels), though it cannot be identified with any known place. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; LP: Skereið) suggests that the name is a cpd of sker ‘skerry’ and eið ‘point, isthmus’. This would seem incompatible with the localisation in Skíringssalr, since the site of the hall (salr) is not on the coast but inland. But the name Skíringssalr may even at an early date have referred to the district controlled by it (cf. Brink 2007b, 60-2 and Note to l. 10 below). — [10] Skíringssal ‘Skíringssalr’: The first known written evidence for the p. n. is in the OE Ælfredian Orosius (late C9th), where it is called Sciringes heale ‘Sciring’s haugh/hale’ (Bately 2008, 47, 55). The second element appears to be the dat. sg. of OE h(e)alh ‘a nook of land, a corner of land, a water-meadow’ (Smith 1956, I, 223), but it could be a spelling or a substitution for OE heall ‘hall’, which would correspond with ON salr ‘hall’. During the Middle Ages Skíringssalr was the name of a district in Vestfold called Tjølling today (Storm 1899, 113; Hkr 1893-1901, IV). Excavations between 1999 and 2001 revealed a man-made plateau north of the old commercial centre Kaupang. It is the site of a very large building measuring 9-10m by 32-34m, and accompanying artefacts indicate that it was the hall of a Viking-Age ruler. The layout corresponds to that of C8th halls from the Mälaren region inspired by the great C7th hall in (Gamla) Uppsala (Skre and Stylegar 2004, 65-71; Skre 2007b, 426-7). Skíringssalr is at present the only known hall site of this kind outside the Mälaren region, which may suggest that it was a direct imitation of the Uppsala hall.

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