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Runic Dictionary

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Þjóðólfr ór Hvini (Þjóð)

9th century; volume 1; ed. Edith Marold;

1. Ynglingatal (Yt) - 37

Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, or inn hvinverski, ‘from Hvinir’ (Þjóð) was a Norwegian skald of the late ninth or early tenth century. As his nickname indicates, he was from Hvinir (Kvinesdal, Vest-Agder). His biography is largely unknown. Skáldatal names him as poet to several rulers and powerful men: Haraldr hárfagri ‘Fair-hair’ and Rǫgnvaldr heiðumhár or heiðumhæri ‘High with Honours’ (SnE 1848-87, III, 253, 261, 273), Hákon jarl Grjótgarðsson (ibid., 256, 265, 280), Þorleifr inn spaki ‘the Wise’ (ibid., 259, 268, 285), Strút-Haraldr jarl (ibid., 259, 284) and an unknown Sveinn jarl (ibid., 268). However, the associations with Hákon, Strút-Haraldr and Þorleifr are uncertain since they may have lived later in the tenth century; see Bugge (1894, 145, 175); Åkerlund (1939, 7). In Hkr, both within the Prologue (ÍF 26, 4) and in HHárf (ÍF 26, 127-8, 139), Þjóðólfr is represented as skald and friend to Haraldr hárfagri and as a dedicated foster-father to Haraldr’s son Guðrøðr ljómi ‘Beam of Light’. It is in this context that he speaks the two lausavísur associated with him (Þjóð Lv 1-2). Þjóðólfr ór Hvini is the composer of the poems Ynglingatal (Þjóð Yt) and Haustlǫng (Þjóð HaustlIII, edited in SkP III). Five stanzas of a poem dedicated to Haraldr hárfagri (Þjóð Har) are also attributed to him. Several stanzas of Haraldskvæði (Þhorn Harkv) are falsely attributed to Þjóðólfr; see Introduction to Harkv. Finally, a fragment (Þjóðólfr FragIII) edited in SkP III is likely to be the work of a different Þjóðólfr, though it is tentatively associated with Þjóð Yt in Skj; see Introduction to Yt.

Ynglingatal — Þjóð YtI

Edith Marold with the assistance of Vivian Busch, Jana Krüger, Ann-Dörte Kyas and Katharina Seidel, translated from German by John Foulks 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 3.

stanzas:  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27 

for reference only:  8x   11x   13x   14x   15x   16x   17x   20x   25x   26x 

Skj: Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, enn hvinverski: 1. Ynglingatal (AI, 7-15, BI, 7-14); stanzas (if different): 9 | 10 | 11 | 12-13 | 13 | 14 | 15-16 | 16 | 17-18 | 18 | 19-20 | 20 | 21-22 | 22 | 23-24 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27-28 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33-34 | 34 | 35-36 | 36 | 37 | 38(?)

SkP info: I, 46

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance search files

21 — Þjóð Yt 21I

edition interactive full text transcriptions old edition references concordance


Cite as: Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal 21’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 46.

Ok við vág
†hinn es viðjar†
hræ Ôleifs
hofgylðir svalg.
Ok glóðfjalgr
gǫrvar leysti
sonr Fornjóts
af Svía jǫfri.
Sá áttkonr
frá Uppsǫlum
lofða kyns
fyr lǫngu hvarf.

Ok {hofgylðir} svalg hræ Ôleifs við vág, †hinn es viðjar†. Ok {glóðfjalgr sonr Fornjóts} leysti gǫrvar af jǫfri Svía. {Sá áttkonr {kyns lofða}} hvarf frá Uppsǫlum fyr lǫngu.

And {the temple-wolf} [FIRE] swallowed the corpse of Óláfr near the bay, †...†. And {the ember-hot son of Fornjótr <giant>} [FIRE] loosed the clothes from the ruler of the Swedes. {That descendant {of the kindred of rulers}} [KINGS > KING] disappeared from Uppsala long ago.

Mss: (40r), papp18ˣ(10r), 521ˣ(49-50), F(6vb), J1ˣ(19v), J2ˣ(22r-v), R685ˣ(21r-v) (Hkr); 761aˣ(61v-62r)

Readings: [2] †hinn es viðjar† (‘hinn er viðiar’): ‘vidar’ F, hinn er er viðjar J1ˣ    [3] Ôleifs: Óláf konung J1ˣ, R685ˣ, Óláfs konungs J2ˣ    [4] hofgylðir: ‘holgyldir’ F, ‘ælgylþis’ J1ˣ, ǫlgylðis J2ˣ, R685ˣ    [5] glóðfjalgr: so J2ˣ, glaðfjalgr Kˣ, papp18ˣ, 521ˣ, F, R685ˣ, 761aˣ, ‘glodflalgr’ J1ˣ    [6] gǫrvar: gǫtvar J1ˣ, J2ˣ, R685ˣ;    leysti: á lesti F    [7] sonr: so F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, R685ˣ, sonar Kˣ, papp18ˣ, 521ˣ, 761aˣ;    Fornjóts: so papp18ˣ, 521ˣ, F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, R685ˣ, 761aˣ, ‘fiorniotz’ Kˣ    [9] Sá: so F, J1ˣ, R685ˣ, svá Kˣ, papp18ˣ, 521ˣ, J2ˣ, 761aˣ;    ‑konr: ‑konar J1ˣ, R685ˣ    [10] frá: at F    [11] lofða: ‘fofda’ R685ˣ

Editions: Skj: Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, enn hvinverski, 1. Ynglingatal 29: AI, 13, BI, 12, Skald I, 8, FF §52; Hkr 1893-1901, I, 76, IV, 21, ÍF 26, 74, Hkr 1991, I, 43 (Yng ch. 43), F 1871, 29; Yng 1912, 49, 67-8, Yng 2000, 62, Yt 1914, 14, Yt 1925, 206, 244-6.

Context: After the death of Ingjaldr illráði, his son Óláfr flees to Vermaland (Värmland) and begins clearing land. Great numbers of Swedes join him, putting pressure on the land, and when harvests fail, this is blamed on Óláfr, who is not given to performing sacrifices. He is burned alive in his house by Vænir (Lake Vänern) by his own people in sacrifice to Óðinn.

Notes: [All]: As father to the Norwegian Yngling king Hálfdan hvítbeinn ‘White-bone’, Óláfr trételgja ‘Wood-cutter’ ushers in the transition from the Swedish to the Norwegian Ynglingar. His nickname trételgja also appears in HN (2003, 78): Eius filius Olauus cognomento Tretelgia … ‘His son Óláfr nicknamed Tretelgia …’. According to Snorri (Context above) and Saxo (Saxo 2005, I, 7, 11, 7, p. 502-3) he ruled in Värmland, to where he had emigrated after the death of his father. Värmland was presumably regarded as part of Sweden by Þjóðólfr, who refers to Óláfr trételgja as a ruler of the Swedes (jǫfri Svía, l. 8), and also in HN (2003, 78), which reports that Óláfr died in Sweden. Snorri’s interpretation of Óláfr’s cremation as a sacrifice to Óðinn and as a brenna, in which a building is set on fire so that its occupants burn to death, is not matched in the other prose sources. — [1] við vág ‘near the bay’: Vágr can designate the sea, a bay or other bodies of water (LP: vágr). This has been variously localized. Snorri (Context above) believes it to be Lake Vänern, and Finnur Jónsson concurs in Hkr 1893-1901, IV and Yng 1912. Noreen (1912a, 10-11) takes it to be the river Fyrisån or (Yt 1925) Lake Mälaren; Skre (2007b, 415) Oslofjorden; and Hkr 1991 the sea. — [2] †hinn es viðjar† ‘…’: Despite several suggestions as to the best way to complete this poorly transmitted (unmetrical) line, one must concur with Åkerlund (1939, 110), ÍF 26 and Wessén (Yng 1952, 73) that it is impossible to arrive at an acceptable solution. — [4] hofgylðir ‘the temple-wolf [FIRE]’: Both this and the J reading ǫlgylðir ‘wolf of the alder’ (J2ˣ) are satisfactory fire-kennings of the type ‘enemy of the tree or the house’ (Meissner 101) and can alliterate either with Ôleifr or with hræ ‘corpse’, and eds have varied in their preference. Hofgylðir is chosen in this edn since it is the reading of the main ms. and since it alliterates with hræ in the first lift of the previous line. In the case of ǫlgylðir the lift would fall on the second syllable of a Type D1-line, which led Noreen (1912a, 11 and Yt 1925) and Åkerlund (1939, 110) to reverse hræ Óláfs to Óláfs hræ. — [4] svalg ‘swallowed’: The verb here extends the metaphoric sense of the base-word of the fire-kenning, gylðir ‘wolf’; cf. Sturl Hákkv 8/1-4II. — [5] glóðfjalgr ‘ember-hot’: Here the reading in J2ˣ (supported by J1ˣ) is preferred for semantic reasons, as it is in all eds apart from Hkr 1991, although glaðfjalgr ‘shiny-hot’, found in and F, cannot be dismissed completely. — [6] gǫrvar ‘the clothes’: The J transcripts have gǫtvar ‘clothes’, which is adopted in most previous eds (Yt 1925; Åkerlund 1939, 110; ÍF 26) as the more common word (see LP: gǫrvar, gǫtvar). This edn follows the main ms. . — [7] sonr Fornjóts ‘the son of Fornjótr <giant> [FIRE]’: Fornjótr’s sons Ægir, Logi and Kári personify the sea, fire and wind, respectively; see Sveinn Norðrdr 2/2III and Note. The etymology of the name is controversial; cf. Hellquist (1903). — [9, 11] sá áttkonr kyns lofða ‘that descendant of the kindred of rulers [KINGS > KING]’: So most eds. Lofða has also been taken as gen. sg. of Lofði, the name of a legendary king (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B). — [10, 12] hvarf frá Uppsǫlum fyr lǫngu ‘disappeared from Uppsala long ago’: This could mean either that Óláfr died (Wadstein 1891, 377-9) or that he went away (Schück 1905-10, 49; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; Yt 1925). Åkerlund (1939, 70-2) argues persuasively for the latter.

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