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Runic Dictionary

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Þjóðólfr ór Hvini (Þjóð)

9th century; volume 1; ed. Edith Marold;

1. Ynglingatal (Yt) - 37

Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, or inn hvinverski, ‘from Hvinir’ (Þjóð) was a Norwegian skald of the late ninth or early tenth century. As his nickname indicates, he was from Hvinir (Kvinesdal, Vest-Agder). His biography is largely unknown. Skáldatal names him as poet to several rulers and powerful men: Haraldr hárfagri ‘Fair-hair’ and Rǫgnvaldr heiðumhár or heiðumhæri ‘High with Honours’ (SnE 1848-87, III, 253, 261, 273), Hákon jarl Grjótgarðsson (ibid., 256, 265, 280), Þorleifr inn spaki ‘the Wise’ (ibid., 259, 268, 285), Strút-Haraldr jarl (ibid., 259, 284) and an unknown Sveinn jarl (ibid., 268). However, the associations with Hákon, Strút-Haraldr and Þorleifr are uncertain since they may have lived later in the tenth century; see Bugge (1894, 145, 175); Åkerlund (1939, 7). In Hkr, both within the Prologue (ÍF 26, 4) and in HHárf (ÍF 26, 127-8, 139), Þjóðólfr is represented as skald and friend to Haraldr hárfagri and as a dedicated foster-father to Haraldr’s son Guðrøðr ljómi ‘Beam of Light’. It is in this context that he speaks the two lausavísur associated with him (Þjóð Lv 1-2). Þjóðólfr ór Hvini is the composer of the poems Ynglingatal (Þjóð Yt) and Haustlǫng (Þjóð HaustlIII, edited in SkP III). Five stanzas of a poem dedicated to Haraldr hárfagri (Þjóð Har) are also attributed to him. Several stanzas of Haraldskvæði (Þhorn Harkv) are falsely attributed to Þjóðólfr; see Introduction to Harkv. Finally, a fragment (Þjóðólfr FragIII) edited in SkP III is likely to be the work of a different Þjóðólfr, though it is tentatively associated with Þjóð Yt in Skj; see Introduction to Yt.

Ynglingatal — Þjóð YtI

Edith Marold with the assistance of Vivian Busch, Jana Krüger, Ann-Dörte Kyas and Katharina Seidel, translated from German by John Foulks 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 3.

stanzas:  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27 

for reference only:  8x   11x   13x   14x   15x   16x   17x   20x   25x   26x 

Skj: Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, enn hvinverski: 1. Ynglingatal (AI, 7-15, BI, 7-14); stanzas (if different): 9 | 10 | 11 | 12-13 | 13 | 14 | 15-16 | 16 | 17-18 | 18 | 19-20 | 20 | 21-22 | 22 | 23-24 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27-28 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33-34 | 34 | 35-36 | 36 | 37 | 38(?)

SkP info: I, 38

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance search files

17 — Þjóð Yt 17I

edition interactive full text transcriptions old edition references concordance


Cite as: Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal 17’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 38.

Veitk Eysteins
enda folginn
lokins lífs
á Lófundi.
Ok sikling
með Svíum kvôðu
józka menn
inni brenna.
Ok bitsótt
í brandnói
hlíðar þangs
á hilmi rann,
þás timbrfastr
toptar nǫkkvi
flotna fullr
of fylki brann.


I know the end of the concluded life of Eysteinn to be hidden in Lófund. And among the Swedes [people] said that men from Jutland burned the ruler inside [a house]. And {the biting sickness {of the sea-weed of the hill-slope}} [FOREST > FIRE] attacked the ruler in {the fire-ship} [HOUSE] when {the timber-fast boat of the building plot}, [HOUSE] full of seafarers, burned over the ruler.

context: Eysteinn, son and successor of Aðils, is enjoying hospitality in Lófund when Sǫlvi, a raider king based in Jutland, sets fire to the building by night, killing Eysteinn and his company. After an eleven-day battle, Sǫlvi gains power in Sweden.

notes: [1-4]: Various syntactic interpretations are possible here, since the alternative readings, m. nom./acc. sg. lokinn (J1ˣ, J2ˣ, R685ˣ) or m./n. gen. sg. lokins (K transcripts, F) ‘concluded’ allow for the following combinations: lokinn with enda ‘end’, lokins with enda, lífs ‘life’ or Eysteins. (a) The interpretation adopted in this edn, as in many previous eds, chooses the reading lokins and construes lokins as a p. p. with lífs, hence ‘of the concluded life’. This results in a construal which connects l. 1 with l. 3 and l. 2 with l. 4, which is characteristic of Þjóðolfr’s composition. (b) Thinking lokins lífs cannot mean ‘of the concluded life’ because lúka governs the dat., Olson (1915, 222) translates lokins lífs as ‘shut in alive’ and thinks it a reference to the king’s burning alive in the brenna. Noreen (Yt 1925) and Lindquist (1929, 67) concur, though Noreen employs the reading lokinn. Kock (NN §2003) rightly objects to Olson’s premise, noting that the case governed by a verb (here the dat.) is irrelevant to the form of the participle.

texts: Yng 28 (I 22a), Hkr 28 (I 22a)

editions: Skj Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, enn hvinverski: 1. Ynglingatal 23-24 (AI, 12; BI, 11); Skald I, 7; NN §§1013, 2003, 3201; Hkr 1893-1901, I, 58-9, IV, 18, ÍF 26, 60-1, Hkr 1991, I, 34 (Yng ch. 31), F 1871, 22-3; Yng 1912, 38-9, 65-6, Yng 2000, 47-8; Yt 1914, 11-12, Yt 1925, 204, 239-40.


AM 35 folx (Kx) 32r, 7 - 32r, 14 (Hkr)  transcr.  image  image  
Holm papp 18 folx (papp18x) 8v, 19 - 8v, 22 (Hkr)  image  
OsloUB 521 folx (521x) 37, 19 - 38, 4 (Hkr)  image  
AM 45 fol (F) 5va, 17 - 5va, 19 (Hkr)  transcr.  image  image  image  image  
AM 37 folx (J1x) 14r, 3 - 14r, 5 (Hkr)  transcr.  image  
AM 38 folx (J2x) 17v, 16 - 17v, 31 (Hkr)  transcr.  image  
UppsUB R 685x (R685x) 17r, 28 - 17v, 1 (Hkr)  transcr.  image  
AM 761 a 4°x (761ax) 60r, 18 - 60v, 12  image  
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