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Runic Dictionary

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Þjóðólfr ór Hvini (Þjóð)

9th century; volume 1; ed. Edith Marold;

1. Ynglingatal (Yt) - 37

Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, or inn hvinverski, ‘from Hvinir’ (Þjóð) was a Norwegian skald of the late ninth or early tenth century. As his nickname indicates, he was from Hvinir (Kvinesdal, Vest-Agder). His biography is largely unknown. Skáldatal names him as poet to several rulers and powerful men: Haraldr hárfagri ‘Fair-hair’ and Rǫgnvaldr heiðumhár or heiðumhæri ‘High with Honours’ (SnE 1848-87, III, 253, 261, 273), Hákon jarl Grjótgarðsson (ibid., 256, 265, 280), Þorleifr inn spaki ‘the Wise’ (ibid., 259, 268, 285), Strút-Haraldr jarl (ibid., 259, 284) and an unknown Sveinn jarl (ibid., 268). However, the associations with Hákon, Strút-Haraldr and Þorleifr are uncertain since they may have lived later in the tenth century; see Bugge (1894, 145, 175); Åkerlund (1939, 7). In Hkr, both within the Prologue (ÍF 26, 4) and in HHárf (ÍF 26, 127-8, 139), Þjóðólfr is represented as skald and friend to Haraldr hárfagri and as a dedicated foster-father to Haraldr’s son Guðrøðr ljómi ‘Beam of Light’. It is in this context that he speaks the two lausavísur associated with him (Þjóð Lv 1-2). Þjóðólfr ór Hvini is the composer of the poems Ynglingatal (Þjóð Yt) and Haustlǫng (Þjóð HaustlIII, edited in SkP III). Five stanzas of a poem dedicated to Haraldr hárfagri (Þjóð Har) are also attributed to him. Several stanzas of Haraldskvæði (Þhorn Harkv) are falsely attributed to Þjóðólfr; see Introduction to Harkv. Finally, a fragment (Þjóðólfr FragIII) edited in SkP III is likely to be the work of a different Þjóðólfr, though it is tentatively associated with Þjóð Yt in Skj; see Introduction to Yt.

Ynglingatal — Þjóð YtI

Edith Marold with the assistance of Vivian Busch, Jana Krüger, Ann-Dörte Kyas and Katharina Seidel, translated from German by John Foulks 2012, ‘ Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 3. <> (accessed 26 September 2021)

stanzas:  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27 

for reference only:  8x   11x   13x   14x   15x   16x   17x   20x   25x   26x 

Skj: Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, enn hvinverski: 1. Ynglingatal (AI, 7-15, BI, 7-14); stanzas (if different): 9 | 10 | 11 | 12-13 | 13 | 14 | 15-16 | 16 | 17-18 | 18 | 19-20 | 20 | 21-22 | 22 | 23-24 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27-28 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33-34 | 34 | 35-36 | 36 | 37 | 38(?)

SkP info: I, 25

old edition introduction edition manuscripts transcriptions concordance search files

10 — Þjóð Yt 10I

edition interactive full text transcriptions old edition references concordance


Cite as: Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal 10’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 25.

Fell Alrekr,
þars Eireki
bróður vôpn
at bana urðu.
Ok hnakkmars
með hǫfuðfetlum
Dags fríendr
of drepask kvôðu.
Fráat maðr áðr
eykja greiði
Freys afspring
í folk hafa.

Alrekr fell, þars vôpn bróður urðu Eireki at bana. Ok kvôðu {fríendr Dags} of drepask með hǫfuðfetlum hnakkmars. Maðr fráat áðr {afspring Freys} hafa greiði eykja í folk.

Alrekr fell where the weapons of his brother became the slayer of Eiríkr. And [people] said that {the kinsmen of Dagr} [= Swedish kings] killed one another with the bridle of the saddle-horse. No one has heard before {of an offspring of Freyr} [= Swedish king] using riding gear in battle.

Mss: (22r), papp18ˣ(6r), 521ˣ(22), F(3vb), J2ˣ(11v), R685ˣ(12v) (Hkr); 761aˣ(57v-58r)

Readings: [3] vôpn: ‘varn’ J2ˣ, R685ˣ    [4] urðu: yrðu R685ˣ    [6] með: om. F, J2ˣ, R685ˣ;    hǫfuð‑: ‘hafum‑’ J2ˣ, hafit‑ R685ˣ    [7] fríendr: frændr Kˣ, papp18ˣ, 521ˣ, F, 761aˣ, ‘frendr’ J2ˣ, R685ˣ    [8] of: om. R685ˣ    [9] Fráat: ‘fermat’ F    [10] greiði: so J2ˣ, gǫrvi Kˣ, papp18ˣ, 521ˣ, 761aˣ, gerði F, greiðr R685ˣ    [11] Freys: ‘freyrs’ F    [12] folk: ‘fo[...]’ J2ˣ, folki R685ˣ;    hafa: ‘[...]’ J2ˣ

Editions: Skj: Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, enn hvinverski, 1. Ynglingatal 11: AI, 9, BI, 9, Skald I, 6; Hkr 1893-1901, I, 37, IV, 11, ÍF 26, 40, Hkr 1991, I, 22 (Yng ch. 20), F 1871, 14; Yng 1912, 26, 60-1, Yng 2000, 27; Yt 1914, 6, Yt 1925, 200, 228-30.

Context: Alrekr and his brother Eiríkr, sons of Agni, are described as excellent riders who strive to outdo one another. One day the two are found dead from head wounds. Because they have no weapons other than their horses’ bridles, it is assumed that they killed each other with them.

Notes: [1] Alrekr: The pers. n. Alrīkʀ is attested several times in Swedish runic inscriptions (Peterson 2007, 21), so it is unlikely that the king was named after the Visigoth king Alarich (d. 410), as Nerman (1919, 147-8) assumes. The brothers, kings Alrekr and Eiríkr, are also mentioned by Saxo (Saxo 2005, I, 5, 10, 1-2, pp. 343-4), who reports that the Swedish king Alricus was killed in a duel by an Eiricus disertus ‘the Eloquent’. Eiricus survived and assumed the kingship. This corresponds to Gautreks saga (FSGJ 4, 34), which specifies that Alrekr was killed with a beisl ‘bridle’. — [5] hnakkmars ‘of the saddle-horse’: The word indicates a riding horse. In ON the word hnakkr meaning ‘saddle’ is not attested (cf. Konráð Gíslason 1881, 220), but it is found in ModIcel. (Sigfús Blöndal 1920-4: hnakkur). — [6] með hǫfuðfetlum ‘with the bridle’: Lit. ‘with head-straps’. This is the only attestation of the cpd. In this context it must mean the entire bridle, not only the leather straps, since it serves the brothers as a deadly weapon (cf. Hkr 1893-1901, IV). ÍF 26 omits the með attested in . — [7] fríendr ‘the kinsmen’: In the mss, the line Dags frændr has only two syllables, so older forms have been used by eds: fríandr (Konráð Gíslason 1881, 218; Hkr 1893-1901) or fríendr (Skj B and later eds including the present one; see also ANG §422). — [10] greiði eykja ‘riding gear’: Lit. ‘tack of draught animals’. The J2ˣ reading greiði ‘harnesses’ (cf. New Norw. n. pl. greie ‘gear, tackle’; and cf. Konráð Gíslason 1881, 220) is preferred here as more specialized than gǫrvi ‘equipment’ in . Greiði also finds some support in the F reading gerði. On the various older interpretations of greiði eykja, see Konráð Gíslason (1881, 218-19).

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